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Table 2 Xenoestrogenic serum activities, estradiol equivalents and lipid adjusted CB-153 and p,p'-DDE in serum of the study groups

From: Xenoestrogenic activity in blood of European and Inuit populations

   Greenland Warsaw Sweden Kharkiv ALL*4 All study group data*5
XER* 1 RLU/ml serum N 72 98 100 88 358 0.003
  Median 2.89 3.09 3.04 3.15 3.05  
  Mean 2.92 3.30 3.22 3.17 3.17  
  Min 1.0 2.4 2.4 1.0 1.1  
  Max 6.0 6.5 12 8.0 12  
  % agonist 1 21 12 14 -  
  % antagonist 35 5 12 17 -  
XER-EEQ pg/g lipid* 2 N 1 21 10 11 43 0.63
  Median - 103 76♥ 139 114  
  Mean - 166 161 179 171  
  Min - 44 50 80 44  
  Max - 516 364 580 580  
XER comp* 3 RLU/ml serum N 72 94 94 88 348 < 0.001
  Median 2.65 2.96 2.90 2.88 2.86  
  Mean 2.69 3.29 2.89 2.87 2.95  
  Min 2.0 1.8 1.0 1.1 1.0  
  Max 3.8 7.0 6.8 4.5 7.0  
  % add/syn 1 13 3 1 -  
  % antagonist 71 7 19 30 -  
CB-153 ng/g lipid N 74 100 98 82 354 < 0.001
  Median 220 16 210 47 79  
  Min 5.1 33 4.1 5.5 3.3  
  Max 5500 130 1500 200 5500  
DDE ng/g lipid N 74 100 98 82 354 < 0.001
  Median 630 570 240 880 560  
  Min 66 240 55 324 55  
  Max 13000 2100 2300 12000 13000  
  1. In the independent assays significant differences between the triple serum extract determinations and their respective solvent controls (% agonists/additive/synergistic) and % antagonists, were tested by the Student's t-test (Microsoft Office Excel, significance level p = 0.05). *1: XER: Xenoestrogenic agonistic or antagonistic activity of serum extract alone: the solvent control = 3.13 RLU/ml serum. % agonistic and % antagonistic indicates the % of samples eliciting a significantly increase or decrease in XER activity compared to solvent control, which was set to 1. *2: XER-estradiol equivalence (XER-EEQ) of the samples eliciting significantly agonistic activity; data calculated by interpolation to the E2 dose response curve using the sigma plot program. ♥ : One Swedish sample was too high to calculate the XER-EEQ. ♣ : One serum sample from Greenland only had an agonistic action, thus no XER-EEQ value is given. *3: XERcomp; XER competitive activity of serum extract + 25 pM 17β-estradiol (E2-EC40); % add/syn: additive/synergistic and % antagonistic indicates the % of samples responding with a further increase or a decrease of the E2-EC40 induced activity, respectively, compared to the E2-EC40 solvent control = 3.13 RLU/ml serum, which was set to 1;. *4: XER activity includes 358 samples, however, only 348 of theses samples were applied to the XERcomp analyses. All of the samples had CB-153 and p,p'-DDE determined. *5: One-way ANOVA (p value) evaluation of the combined study group data except for XER-EEQ including only the European groups. In transformed data was used.