Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Cyanotoxins with public health significance from acute exposures

From: Recreational and occupational field exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria – a review of anecdotal and case reports, epidemiological studies and the challenges for epidemiologic assessment

Toxin or toxin group Classification by principal target organ systems Toxin-producing genera LD50(i.p. mouse) References
Microcystins Hepatotoxins Anabaena, Anabaenopsis, Aphanocapsa, Arthrospira, Hapalosiphon, Microcystis, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Planktothrix, Snowella, Woronichinia 25->1000 μg/kg [10, 19, 26, 125-128]
Nodularins Hepatotoxins Nodularia 30–60 μg/kg [8, 26, 129]
Anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a Neurotoxins Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Arthrospira, Cylindrospermum, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, Planktothrix, Raphidiopsis 200–375 μg/kg [8, 10, 18, 26, 130-135]
Anatoxin-a(s) Neurotoxin Anabaena 20–40 μg/kg [8, 26, 132]
Saxitoxins Neurotoxins Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Lyngbya, Planktothrix 10–30 μg/kg [26, 127, 132, 136-140]
Cylindrospermopsin General cytotoxin (multiple organ systems affected, incl. liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, heart, spleen, thymus, skin) Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Raphidiopsis, Umezakia 2.1 mg/kg (24 hours) 200 μg/kg (5–6 days) [8, 10, 17, 132, 141-145]
Aplysiatoxin, debromoaplysiatoxin Dermal toxins; probable gastro-intestinal inflammatory toxin Lyngbya 107–117 μg/kg [146-152]
Lyngbyatoxin A Possible gastro-intestinal inflammatory toxin Lyngbya 250 μg/kg (?LD100) [153]