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Table 1 Summary of near-highway pollution gradients

From: Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks

Citation Location Highway traffic intensitya Pollutants measuredb Observed Pollution Gradients
Shi et al. 1999 (6) Birmingham, UK 30,000 veh/d UFP + FP (10-104 nm) 2–100 m c
Zhu et al. 2002 (8) Los Angeles; Freeway 710 12,180 veh/h UFP, CO, BC 17–300 m c
Zhu et al. 2002 (7) Los Angeles; Freeway 405 13,900 veh/h UFP, CO, BC 30–300 m c
Hitchins et al. 2002 (11) Brisbane (Austr.) 2,130–3,400 veh/h UFP + FP (15-2 × 104 nm), PM2.5 15–375 m c
Fischer et al. 2000 (13) Amsterdam <3,000–30,974 veh/d PM2.5, PM10, PPAH, VOCs NA
Roorda-Knape et al. 1998 (14) Netherlands 80,000–152,000 veh/d PM2.5, PM10, BC, VOCs, NO2 15–330 m c
Janssen et al. 2001 (15) Netherlands 40,000–170,000 veh/d PM2.5, VOCs, NO2 < 400 m c
Morawska et al. 1999 (12) Brisbane (Austr.) NA UFP 10–210 m c
  1. aAs defined in article cited (veh/d = vehicles per day; veh/h = vehicles per hour).
  2. bUFP = ultrafine particles; FP = fine particles; PM2.5 = particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 um; PM10 = particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 um; BC = black carbon; PPAH = particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; VOCs = volatile organic compounds
  3. cPollutant measurements were made along a transect away from the highway
  4. NA = not applicable; measurements were not made.