
Exposed

Unexposed
 
95%
 


N(%) or mean ± s.d.

N(%) or mean ± s.d.

Odds Ratio

Confidence Interval

Pvalue


Pneumonia*

11(13.58)

18(13.95)

1.19

0.45, 3.15

0.72

Pleurisy*

5 (6.33)

4 (3.10)

1.48

0.29, 7.61

0.64

Chronic bronchitis*

16 (19.75)

3 (2.33)

17.4

4.06, 74.35

0.0001

Dry cough**

4.64 ± 3.21

2.36 ± 1.74

5.06

2.67, 9.60

<0.0001

Cough with mucous**

4.73 ± 3.51

2.79 ± 1.75

2.6

1.43, 4.73

0.002

Cough with Blood**

2.30 ± 2.55

1.11 ± 0.45

11.8

4.33, 32.03

<0.0001

Asthma Diagnosed by MD*

11 (13.41)

17 (13.18)

2.13

0.78, 5.82

0.14

Rhinitis*

24 (29.63)

21 (16.28)

3.45

1.49, 8.01

0.004

Sinusitis range**

4.57 ± 3.71

2.50 ± 1.91

2.62

1.43, 4.79

0.002

Short of Breath at Rest*

23 (27.38)

4 (3.10)

11.3

3.11, 40.98

0.0002

Short of Breath on Walking*

40 (48.19)

6 (4.65)

34.3

10.52, 112.09

<0.0001

Short of Breath Climbing Stairs*

52 (62.65)

34 (26.36)

6.17

2.81, 13.56

<0.0001

Wheezing*

24 (28.57)

7 (5.43)

19.2

5.59, 65.98

<0.0001

 *Odds ratio and confidence intervals are estimated using logistic regression
 ** Odds ratio and confidence intervals are estimated using multinomial logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations (GEE); odds ratio interpreted as the odds of exposed being in a higher category compared to unexposed. Respondents were asked to "score each question on a scale of 1 – 11, one representing never and 11 representing always.
 Controlled for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and smoking history