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Table 4 Association of metals and metalloids with β2-microglobulin, creatinine clearance, and kidney length controlling for confounders

From: Metals and kidney markers in adult offspring of endemic nephropathy patients and controls: a two-year follow-up study

  β2-microglobulin (ng/mL) CCR Cockcroft, Gault/BSA (mL/min/m2) Kidney length (mm)
  Total sample Ben-offspring Control-offspring Total sample Ben-offspring Control-offspring Total sample Ben-offspring Control-offspring
  n = 201, obs = 387 n = 102, obs = 192 n = 99, obs = 195 n = 201, obs = 388 n = 102, obs = 193 n = 99, obs = 195 n = 201, obs = 388 n = 102, obs = 193 n = 99, obs = 195
Intercept 1.260 0.992 1.358 98.33 88.30 105.97 100.32 98.41 99.91
Blood lead (μg/L) -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.02 0.01 -0.06* 0.005 -0.01 0.00
Selenium in serum (μg/L) 0.001 0.003* 0.000 -0.09* -0.05 -0.14* 0.02* 0.04* 0.01
Cadmium in urine (μg/L) 0.042 0.074 0.003 -2.09 -2.98 -1.53 0.10 0.11 0.05
Arsenic in urine (μg/L) 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.18 0.37 0.17 -0.06 -0.11 -0.07
Sex, male 0.189* 0.235* 0.151* 8.88* 4.70 13.09* 1.92 1.19 2.45
Age (years) 0.004* 0.008* 0.002 -0.67* -0.57* -0.69* 0.01 -0.02 0.02
Current smoker -0.095* -0.233* -0.004 -0.30 2.89 -3.01 0.29 2.77* -0.48
Ex-smoker 0.024 -0.059 0.039 -1.53 3.57 -8.33* -0.12 0.98 -0.09
Diabetes mellitus 0.058 0.210 -0.063 -2.10 -2.99 -3.99 -1.87 -4.01 -0.25
Hypertension 0.048 -0.040 0.100 1.11 -0.11 2.42 -0.89 0.53 -1.72
Body surface area # -0.174 -0.139 -0.116 - - - 8.58* 8.74* 9.55*
Cystitis 0.014 0.032 -0.010 0.01 4.07 -1.41 -0.67 -1.07 -0.42
Pyelonephritis -0.081 -0.118 0.191 2.39 2.33 -14.38 -0.65 0.77 -0.50
Kidney stone(s) 0.017 0.014 0.123 2.34 2.57 1.62 -0.57 -1.53 0.18
Creatinine in 1-hour urine 0.475* 0.417* 0.530*     - - -
Creatinine in morning urine (g/L) 0.018 0.004 0.006 -2.81* -2.04 -3.57 -0.07 0.35 -0.28
  1. *p ≤ 0.05
  2. # BSA = square root ((height in cm × weight in kg)/3600)