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Table 8 Summary statistics for PCE exposure indices in our study and other studies

From: Biological exposure assessment to tetrachloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry

PCE exposure indices Present study
(n = 18)
Gobba
(n = 26) [15]
Solet
(n = 195) [16]
Lauwerys
(n = 26) [17]
Skender
(n = 18) [37]
  M (SD) GM (GSD) M (SD) GM (GSD) M (SD) GM (GSD) M (SD) GM (GSD) M (SD) GM (GSD)
Machine type(s) DD DD DD & T Unknown Unknown
PCE TWA (ppm) 3.1 (4.5) 1.6 (3.3) 6.5 (6.4)   T29.5 (28.6) DD7.1 (6.4) T 17.1 (3.6) DD6.5 (2.0) 20.8    
PCE in blood (ng/ml) pre-shift 70.5 (106.4) 36.7 (3.3)      400   0.6  
PCE in blood (ng/ml) post-shift    726 (937)     1200   1.5  
PCE in exhaled breath (ppm) pre-shift 0.5 (0.4) 0.4 (2.7)      1.9    
PCE in exhaled breath (ppm) mid-shift      T 7.7 (6.1) DD1.5 (1.2) T 6.6 (2.3) DD2.2 (1.6)     
PCE in exhaled breath (ppm) post-shift 1.2 (0.9) 0.9 (2.5) 7.9 (12.1)     5.1    
TCA in urine/creatinine (mg/g) pre-shift 1.1 (1.9) 0.3 (7.2)        3.9  
TCA in urine/creatinine (mg/g) post-shift 0.9 (1.0) 0.5 (3.9)        3.4  
  1. Abbreviations: n, number of samples/specimens; M, arithmetic mean; SD, standard deviation; GM, geometric mean; GSD, geometric standard deviation; DD, dry-to-dry; T, transfer
  2. Some measurements from previous studies were converted from mg/L, mg/m3, mmol/mol, etc.