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Table 6 Summary of the results from previous and present studies focusing on seven most common specific birth defect.

From: Water disinfection by-products and the risk of specific birth defects: a population-based cross-sectional study in Taiwan

  Sweden 2000 [14] Norway 2002 [12] California 2003(1) [11] California 2003(2) [11] England and Wales 2007 [13] Taiwan 2008
Type of study Cross-sectional, population-based Cross-sectional, population-based Case-control Case-control Cross-sectional, population-based Cross-sectional, population-based
Study Population 115,801 births 184,676 births 539 controls 481 conrols 2,605,226 births 396,409 births
No of birth Defects 1,842 5,764 538 265 22,828 2,148
Exposure Chlorine dioxide Chlorination, High color TTHMs 50–74 μg/l TTHMs 50–74 μg/l TTHMs >= 60 μg/l TTHMs >= 20 μg/l
Reference None No chlorination, Low color TTHMs 0 μg/l TTHMs 0 μg/l TTHMs <30 μg/l TTHMs 0–4 μg/l
Anencephalus   0.79 (0.15–4.23) (n = 46) 0.55 (0.26–1.10) (n = 164) 1.80 (0.76–4.40) (n = 89)   1.96 (0.94–4.07) (n = 43)
Hydorcephalus 1.50 (0.30–7.30) (n = 36) 2.70 (0.77–9.51) (n = 68)     0.74 (0.43–1.28) (n = 118)
Ventricular septal defects   1.81 (1.05–3.09) (n = 279)    1.43 (1.00–2.04) (n = 408) 1.81 (0.98–3.35) (n = 59)
Atrial septal Defects   0.92 (0.24–1.50) (n = 73)     1.33 (0.39–4.58) (n = 19)
Cleft lip with/without palate   0.85 (0.53–1.38) (n = 248)   1.90 (0.81–4.50) (n = 117) 0.94 (0.83–1.06) (n = 2,909) 0.98 (0.73–1.32) (n = 358)
Cleft palate   1.07 (0.35–3.27) (n = 95)   1.00 (0.32–3.40) (n = 58) 0.95 (0.76–1.10) (n = 1,929) 1.56 (1.00–2.41) (n = 129)
Obstructive urinary tract defects   1.99 (0.66–5.96) (n = 102)     1.44 (0.66–3.14) (n = 49)
  1. * Sweden 2000 [14]; California 2003(1): Shaw et. al. Study 1 [11]; California 2003(1): Shaw et. al. Study 2 [11]; Norway 2007 [12]; England and Wales 2007 [13]; Taiwan 2008: the present study.