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Table 7 A comparison of the results from the present, Sweden, Norway, California, and England and Wales studies.

From: Water disinfection by-products and the risk of specific birth defects: a population-based cross-sectional study in Taiwan

Birth defect Study area Fixed-Effects Model Summary OR (95 % CI) Random-Effects Model Summary OR (95% CI) Q-statistic/P-value*
Anencephalus Norway 2002 1.13 (0.74–1.73) 1.15 (0.56–2.36) 7.55/0.056
  California 2003 (1)    
  California 2003 (2)    
  Taiwan 2008    
  Norway 2002 0.85 (0.51–1.43) 0.91 (0.40–2.51) 4.23/0.121
  California 2003 (1)    
  California 2003 (2)    
  Norway 2002 0.98 (0.61–1.59) 0.98 (0.38–2.51) 6.19/0.045
  California 2003 (1)    
  Taiwan 2008    
  Norway 2002 1.73 (1.01–2.96) 1.73 (1.01–2.96) 0.96/0.619
  California 2003 (2)    
  Taiwan 2008    
Cleft palate Norway 2002 1.00 (0.87–1.15) 1.10 (0.82–1.48) 4.50/0.212
  California 2003 (2)    
  Taiwan 2008    
  England and Wales 2007    
  Norway 2002 1.43 (0.97–2.10) 1.43 (0.97–2.10) 0.74/0.690
  California 2003 (2)    
  Taiwan 2008    
  Norway 2002 0.95 (0.83–1.10) 0.95 (0.83–1.10) 0.05/0.976
  California 2003 (2)    
  England and Wales 2007    
  California 2003 (2) 1.00 (0.87–1.15) 1.13 (0.77–1.66) 4.49/0.106
  Taiwan 2008    
  England and Wales 2007    
Cleft lip with/without palate Norway 2002 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 2.76/0.431
  California 2003 (2)    
  Taiwan 2008    
  England and Wales 2007    
  Norway 2002 1.00 (0.78–1.27) 1.01 (0.75–1.37) 2.58/0.276
  California 2003 (2)    
  Taiwan 2008    
  Norway 2002 0.95 (0.84–1.06) 0.97 (0.76–1.24) 2.71/0.258
  California 2003 (2)    
  England and Wales 2007    
  California 2003 (2) 0.96 (0.86–1.07) 0.98 (0.82–1.15) 2.54/0.281
  Taiwan 2008    
  England and Wales 2007    
Ventricular septal defects Norway 2002 1.59 (1.21–2.07) 1.59 (1.21–2.07) 0.74/0.692
  Taiwan 2008    
  England and Wales 2007    
  Norway 2002 1.81 (1.21–2.71) 1.81 (1.21–2.71) 0.0001/0.99
  Taiwan 2008    
Hydrocephalus Sweden 2000 0.95 (0.59–1.50) 1.21 (0.52–2.81) 3.76/0.152
  Norway 2002    
  Taiwan 2008    
Obstructive urinary tract defects Norway 2002 1.61 (0.85–3.03) 1.61 (0.85–3.03) 0.22/0.638
  Taiwan 2008    
Atrial septal defects Norway 2002 0.97 (0.61–1.52) 0.97 (0.61–1.52) 0.30/0.59
  Taiwan 2008    
  1. *P < 0.05 indicates that a random-effects model is more appropriate.
  2. *Sweden 2000 [14]; California 2003(1): Shaw et. al. Study 1 [11]; California 2003(1): Shaw et. al. Study 2 [11] Norway 2007 [12]; England and Wales 2007 [13]; Taiwan 2008: the present study.