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Table 1 PCE concentrations (ug/L) measured in water samples according to characteristics of sampling location and methods

From: Evaluation of the Webler-Brown model for estimating tetrachloroethylene exposure from vinyl-lined asbestos-cement pipes

  No. of Samples No. With NDa Level Percent With NDa Level Meanb Median 75th Percentile Range
All Samples 88 43 49 66 0.5 32 ND-2432
According to:        
Complexity of pipe configurationc        
   Simple 31 13 42 73 20 50 ND-780
   Complex 57 30 53 63 ND 22 ND-2432
Magnitude of flowc        
   High (> 19 homes) 19 11 58 10 ND 20 ND-59
   Medium (3–19 homes) 33 22 67 18 ND 20 ND-190
   Low (< = 2 homes) 36 10 28 141 18 57 ND-2432
Position along pipec        
   End 44 16 36 56 12 37 ND-780
   Beginning/Middle 44 27 61 77 ND 25 ND-2432
Overestimated housing densityc        
   Yes 25 11 44 182 6.6 38 ND-2432
   No 63 32 51 20 ND 28 ND-235
Season sampledc        
   Spring 74 42 57 77 ND 38 ND-2432
   Autumn 14 1 7 7.7 4.6 11 ND-44
Water fixture sampledc        
   Tap or spigot 10 3 30 302 32 190 ND-2432
   Hydrant 18 7 39 26 21 35 ND-92
   Unknown 60 33 55 39 ND 18 ND-780
Sampling personnelc        
   Sampler 1 69 33 48 38 0.5 31 ND-780
   Sampler 2 18 10 56 43 ND 28 ND-350
   Sampler 3 1 0 0 2432 ---d ---d ---d
Townc        
   Barnstable 7 7 100 ND ND ND ND-ND
   Bourne 16 10 63 57 ND 26 ND-540
   Brewster 7 2 29 140 32 100 ND-780
   Chatham 6 5 83 4.9 ND ND ND-28
   Falmouth 6 1 17 47 53 62 ND-75
   Provincetown 5 5 100 ND ND ND ND-ND
   Sandwich 9 3 33 36 22 59 ND-92
   Plymouth 25 7 28 128 3.1 13 ND-2432
   Wareham 7 3 43 15 20 28 ND-35
Pipe installation yearc        
   1968–1972 23 16 70 38 ND 1 ND-780
   1973–1976 32 15 47 18 4.6 25 ND-100
   1977–1980 33 12 36 134 22 59 ND-2432
  1. a ND – Not Detected. The detection limit was 0.5 μg/L.
  2. b Means were calculated using 0.25 μg/L (half the detection limit) for ND samples.
  3. c See text for definitions and further description.
  4. d Analyses were not conducted.