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Table 1 Characteristics and emission data for the 9 study areas

From: Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study

Area of interest Surface (km2) Number of inhabitants* Characteristics and sources of pollution Pesticide use (kg/km2)** Industrial Emission to air (per year)*** Industrial Emission to surface water (per year)***
Antwerp 81 404,241 Metallurgic industry, large non-ferrous smelter, important highways, huge traffic 13.3 80 kg PAH  
Antwerp Port 179 64,510 Huge petrochemical industries, chemical and plastic industry, production of pesticides 117 15 kg Cd 15 kg Pb
      837.5 kg PAH 4.03 kg Cd
      93,729 kg benzene 4.1 kg pesticides
       3.2 kg PAH
       640.9 kg benzene
Fruit area 362 95,829 Apple and pear orchards: more than 10 hectares per km2 617   
Olen 183 68,068 Large non-ferrous smelter, delineated in function of modelled, calculated immission of at least 0.9 ng lead per m3 from the non-ferrous smelter. Chemical, plastic and automobile industry. Rural areas 34.6 810 kg Pb 88 kg Pb
      87 kg Cd 39.71 kg Cd
      4,050 kg benzene  
Ghent 100 213,025 Metallurgic and automobile industry, intensive traffic 27.7 150 kg Pb 24.7 kg Pb
Waste incinerators 37 56,405 Waste water and waste treatment. Delineated in function of modelled, calculated immission of at least 1.2 mg smoke per m3 from the waste incinerator 80.1 14 kg Cd 48.7 kg Pb
       1.89 kg PAH
Rural area 1181 153,770 Less than 250 inhabitants per km2. No highways crossing the municipalities. No industries reported in the emission inventory of the Flemish Environmental protection agency. 233   
Albert canal 711 64,763 Chemical and plastic industries, rural areas, production of electricity 20.8 430 kg benzene 59.5 kg Pb
       67.36 kg Cd
Ghent Port 202 65,554 Mainly metallurgic industries 99.2 34,500 kg Pb 1,690 kg Pb
      542.1 kg Cd  
      1,823 kg PAH  
      225 kg benzene  
Total 3036 1,186,165    35,460 kg Pb 1,925.9 kg Pb
      658,1 kg Cd 111.1 kg Cd
      2,740.5 kg PAH 4.1 kg pesticides
      98,434 kg benzene 5.09 kg PAH
       640.9 kg benzene
  1. * Based on the number of inhabitants of 1998; ** Belgian ministry of Economic affairs and Institute for Social and Economic Geography, Catholic University of Leuven; *** Emissions of pollutants reported by the emitting companies themselves to the Flemish Environmental Protection Agency