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Table 3 Effect-biomarkers for different main study areas: crude values.

From: Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study

Main area   PSA (ng/mL) p = 0.23 CEA (ng/mL) p = 0.014 p53 (pg/mL) p = 0.33 Micronuclei (number per 1000 binucleated cells) p = 0.15 DNA-strand breaks (comet assay, %DNA) p = 0.00015 Oxidative DNA damage (HDG μg/g crt) p = 0.05
Antwerp median 1.17 1.91***(H) 4.5 7.30 1.69 14.5
  p10, p90 0.39, 3.31 0.88, 4.70 4.5, 109.0 2.70, 14.90 0.55, 3.39 9.2, 22.3
  n 97 125 117 109 68 50
Antwerp Port median 0.95 1.55 4.5 6.65 1.23# a (L) 15.9
  p10, p90 0.40, 3.53) 0.80, 3.94 4.5, 84.0 2.90, 13.30 0.56, 4.67 8.0, 21.8
  n 75 64 64 62 49 39
Fruit Area median 0.88# 1.57# (L) 4.5 6.00# (L) 1.35 (L) 15.5*
  p10, p90 0.33, 2.17 0.59, 3.60 4.5, 161.0 2.30, 14.10 0.85, 3.19 11.4, 26.1
  n 100 88 111 75 44 35
Olen median 0.97 1.57 4.5 7.00 1.60 14.3
  p10, p90 0.35, 3.42 0.72, 5.41 4.5, 121.0 3.00, 12.50 0.61, 2.60 8.2, 23.4
  n 95 79 79 79 74 40
Ghent median 0.96 1.88* 4.5 7.25 2.03*** (H) 15.3
  p10, p90 0.45, 2.96 0.81, 4.30 4.5, 111.0 3.20, 14.30 0.97, 3.65 9.7, 22.9
  n 93 99 99 98 85 72
Waste Incinerators median 0.86 1.89* 4.5# 8.60 (H) 2.24*** (H) 17.9** (H)
  p10, p90 0.30, 2.49 0.82, 4.33 4.5, 59.0 2.90, 17.40 0.95, 3.13 9.4, 28.4
  n 94 121 102 101 100 51
Rural area median 1.06 1.79 4.5 7.00 1.97** 14.7# (L)
  p10, p90 0.34, 2.87 0.80, 3.31 4.5, 159.0 2.50, 16.10 1.03, 2.95 8.0, 20.8
  n 100 114 114 110 101 76
Albert Canal median 1.08 1.49 (L) 4.5 7.10 1.97 15.5
  p10, p90 0.47, 3.17 0.80, 3.30 4.5, 139.0 3.00, 15.60 0.95, 2.67 10.0, 21.9
  n 97 103 103 103 37 35
Ghent Port median 0.81 1.84 4.5 6.60 1.73 9.3
  p10, p90 0.43, 2.76 0.78, 4.08 4.5, 512.0 3.20, 14.20 1.00, 2.57 -
  n 19 36 36 36 35 1
  1. H indicates significantly higher values for the area compared to the rest of Flanders.
  2. L indicates significantly lower values for the area compared to the rest of Flanders.
  3. # area with lowest crude geometric mean. Significant differences with the area with the lowest geometric mean in an LSD post hoc test are indicated by *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  4. a This low value is due to the residents of Beveren situated about 6 kilometres upwind of the industrial installations, who had a mean value of 1.10% (see text).
  5. Median and p10–p90 crude values and number of cases. Statistical significance is assessed in ANOVA.