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Table 4 Effect-biomarkers for different main study areas: adjusted values.

From: Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study

Main area   PSA (ng/mL) p = 0.30 CEA (ng/mL) P = 0.034 p53 (pg/mL) p = 0.40 Micronuclei (number per 1000 binucleated cells) p = 0.045 DNA-strand breaks (comet assay, %DNA) p = 0.00017 Oxidative DNA damage (HDG μg/g crt) p = 0.037
  Confounding variables A/LS/BMI A/S/LS A/S/LS A/S/LS A/S/RS A/S/RS
Antwerp geometric mean 1.13 1.94*** 9.3 6.64* 1.54 14.4
  95% CI 0.95, 1.34 1.75, 2.16 7.1, 12.2 5.86, 7.53 1.35, 1.75 13.0, 16.0
  n 97 125 117 109 68 50
Antwerp Port geometric mean 0.92 1.63 10.4 5.95 1.42# a (L) 14.7
  95% CI 0.76, 1.11 1.41, 1.88 7.3, 15.0 5.05, 7.02 1.21, 1.66 13.0, 16.5
  n 75 64 64 62 49 39
Fruit Area geometric mean 0.82# (L) 1.59 (L) 11.7 5.16# (L) 1.44 (L) 16.6*
  95% CI 0.70, 0.98 1.40, 1.80 8.9, 15.4 4.44, 6.00 1.22, 1.69 14.7, 18.8
  n 100 88 111 75 44 35
Olen geometric mean 1.02 1.77 10.8 6.57* 1.57 14.0
  95% CI 0.86, 1.21 1.55, 2.02 7.8, 14.9 5.67, 7.60 1.38, 1.79 12.5, 15.8
  n 95 79 79 79 74 40
Ghent geometric mean 1.02 1.89* 11.3 6.77* 1.97*** (H) 15.1
  95% CI 0.86, 1.21 1.68, 2.12 8.5, 15.2 5.94, 7.72 1.75, 2.22 13.8, 16.4
  n 93 99 99 98 85 72
Waste geometric mean 0.91 1.89** 9.2# 7.51*** (H) 2.03*** (H) 17.3** (H)
Incinerators 95% CI 0.77, 1.08 1.70, 2.10 6.9, 12.2 6.60, 8.55 1.82, 2.26 15.6, 19.1
  n 94 121 102 101 100 51
Rural area geometric mean 0.94 1.85 13.3 6.75* 1.86** 14.0#
  95% CI 0.80, 1.11 1.65, 2.06 10.1, 17.4 5.97, 7.65 1.67, 2.07 12.8, 15.2
  n 100 114 114 110 101 76
Albert Canal geometric mean 1.09 1.54# (L) 13.9 6.57* 1.66 15.0
  95% CI 0.92, 1.29 1.37, 1.73 10.5, 18.5 5.78, 7.46 1.39, 1.99 13.2, 16.9
  n 97 103 103 103 37 35
Ghent Port geometric mean 1.00 1.91 13.53 6.44 1.66 8.9
  95% CI 0.68, 1.47 1.58, 2.32 8.4, 21.9 5.18, 8.00 1.38, 1.99 -
  n 19 36 36 36 35 1
  1. H indicates significantly higher values for the area compared to the rest of Flanders.
  2. L indicates significantly lower values for the area compared to the rest of Flanders.
  3. # area with lowest adjusted geometric mean.
  4. Significant differences with the area with the lowest geometric me an in an LSD post hoc test are indicated by *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  5. a This low value is due to the residents of Beveren situated about 6 kilometres upwind of the main industrial installations, who had a geometric mean value of 1.00% (see text below). A = age, S = sex, LS = lifetime smoking, RS = recent smoking, BMI = body mass index.
  6. Adjusted geometric means, 95% confidence intervals and number of cases. Statistical significance is assessed in ANCOVA after adjustment for confounding factors as described in the text.