Main area
 
PSA (ng/mL) p = 0.30

CEA (ng/mL) P = 0.034

p53 (pg/mL) p = 0.40

Micronuclei (number per 1000 binucleated cells) p = 0.045

DNAstrand breaks (comet assay, %DNA) p = 0.00017

Oxidative DNA damage (HDG μg/g crt) p = 0.037



Confounding variables

A/LS/BMI

A/S/LS

A/S/LS

A/S/LS

A/S/RS

A/S/RS

Antwerp

geometric mean

1.13

1.94***

9.3

6.64*

1.54

14.4


95% CI

0.95, 1.34

1.75, 2.16

7.1, 12.2

5.86, 7.53

1.35, 1.75

13.0, 16.0


n

97

125

117

109

68

50

Antwerp Port

geometric mean

0.92

1.63

10.4

5.95

1.42#
^{a}
(L)

14.7


95% CI

0.76, 1.11

1.41, 1.88

7.3, 15.0

5.05, 7.02

1.21, 1.66

13.0, 16.5


n

75

64

64

62

49

39

Fruit Area

geometric mean

0.82# (L)

1.59 (L)

11.7

5.16# (L)

1.44 (L)

16.6*


95% CI

0.70, 0.98

1.40, 1.80

8.9, 15.4

4.44, 6.00

1.22, 1.69

14.7, 18.8


n

100

88

111

75

44

35

Olen

geometric mean

1.02

1.77

10.8

6.57*

1.57

14.0


95% CI

0.86, 1.21

1.55, 2.02

7.8, 14.9

5.67, 7.60

1.38, 1.79

12.5, 15.8


n

95

79

79

79

74

40

Ghent

geometric mean

1.02

1.89*

11.3

6.77*

1.97*** (H)

15.1


95% CI

0.86, 1.21

1.68, 2.12

8.5, 15.2

5.94, 7.72

1.75, 2.22

13.8, 16.4


n

93

99

99

98

85

72

Waste

geometric mean

0.91

1.89**

9.2#

7.51*** (H)

2.03*** (H)

17.3** (H)

Incinerators

95% CI

0.77, 1.08

1.70, 2.10

6.9, 12.2

6.60, 8.55

1.82, 2.26

15.6, 19.1


n

94

121

102

101

100

51

Rural area

geometric mean

0.94

1.85

13.3

6.75*

1.86**

14.0#


95% CI

0.80, 1.11

1.65, 2.06

10.1, 17.4

5.97, 7.65

1.67, 2.07

12.8, 15.2


n

100

114

114

110

101

76

Albert Canal

geometric mean

1.09

1.54# (L)

13.9

6.57*

1.66

15.0


95% CI

0.92, 1.29

1.37, 1.73

10.5, 18.5

5.78, 7.46

1.39, 1.99

13.2, 16.9


n

97

103

103

103

37

35

Ghent Port

geometric mean

1.00

1.91

13.53

6.44

1.66

8.9


95% CI

0.68, 1.47

1.58, 2.32

8.4, 21.9

5.18, 8.00

1.38, 1.99




n

19

36

36

36

35

1


H indicates significantly higher values for the area compared to the rest of Flanders.

L indicates significantly lower values for the area compared to the rest of Flanders.
 # area with lowest adjusted geometric mean.
 Significant differences with the area with the lowest geometric me an in an LSD post hoc test are indicated by *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

^{a} This low value is due to the residents of Beveren situated about 6 kilometres upwind of the main industrial installations, who had a geometric mean value of 1.00% (see text below). A = age, S = sex, LS = lifetime smoking, RS = recent smoking, BMI = body mass index.
 Adjusted geometric means, 95% confidence intervals and number of cases. Statistical significance is assessed in ANCOVA after adjustment for confounding factors as described in the text.