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Table 5 Associations between levels of biomarkers of effect and measured internal exposure.

From: Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study

Effect biomarker n Parameter of internal exposure Confounding factors Regression coefficient Standardized regression coefficient (95% CI) Squared semi-partial correlation p-value
CEA (ng/mL) n = 829 829 Lead μg/L A/S/LS 0.0084 0.104 (0.044, 0.165) 0.0136 < 0.001
   1-OHP μg/g crt A/S/LS 0.427 0.101 (0.039, 0.164) 0.0120 0.0016
   Cadmium urine mg/g crt A/S/LS 0.380 0.099 (0.034, 0.165) 0.0105 0.0032
   ttMA mg/g crt A/S/LS 1.111 0.092 (0.030, 0.154) 0.0103 0.0036
   Index of internal exposure (Iex) A/S/LS 0.445 0.101 (0.037, 0.166) 0.0090 0.0022
Micronuclei (number per 1000 binucleated cells) 773 PCB118 ng/g fat A/S/LS/BMI 0.0280 0.092 (-0.095, 0.278) 0.0091 0.0083
DNA-strand breaks (%DNA, comet assay) 593 PCB118 ng/g fat A/S/RS/BMI 0.0051 0.093 (0.007, 0.178) 0.0077 0.034
Oxidative DNA-damage (μg HDG/g crt) 399 ttMA mg/g crt A/S/RS 4.047 0.096 (-0.003, 0.194) 0.0092 0.057
   1-OHP μg/g crt A/S/RS 3.178 0.179 (0.077, 0.282) 0.0289 < 0.001
  1. A multiple regression was performed with each effect biomarker as dependent variable with a measured exposure variable and confounding factors as independent variables. CI: confidence interval, n: number of cases, A = age, S = sex, LS = lifetime smoking, RS = recent smoking, BMI = body mass index.