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Table 1 Characteristics of study cities

From: An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities

  Budapest London Milan
Study period 1993–2001 1993–2003 1999–2004
Population 1698106 7517700 1305808
Latitude 47°30'N 51°30'N 45°27'N
Average summer (June-Aug) temperature, °C 21.3 18.1 23.0
Heat cut-point.
95th percentile daily mean temperature, °C
24.4 20.4 26.3
Particulate concentrations, μg/m3
Mean (5th to 95th percentile)
TSP: 57.0 (26.0 – 104.5) PM10: 32.9 (18.5–60.5) PM10: 58 (19–137)
8 hr Ozone concentration, μg/m3
Mean (5th to 95th percentile)
73.3 (26.0 – 132.5) 21.8 (5.5 – 46.0) 74 (9 – 173)
Daily number deaths
Mean (5th to 95th percentile)
75 (56 – 97) 171 (134 – 223) 30 (19 – 43)
Age at death (years), %    
   0–14 0.8 1.4 1
   15–64 26.2 18.3 14
   65–74 23.6 19.6 20
   75–84 29.3 31.6 31
   85+ 20.1 28.3 34
Cause of death, %    
   CVD 49.2 38.5 37
   Respiratory 3.3 17.4 8
   External 4.1 3.1 4