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Table 1 Time-series studies of short-term health effects of air pollution after 2000

From: Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

Study Pollutant Population Methodology Main findings
Czech Republic and rural region in Germany [83] TSP Mortality 1982–1994 Poisson regression (GAM) Czech Republic: 3.8% increase (95% CI: 0.8%, 9.6%) per 100 μg/m3; No evidence for association in the rural area in German at the Czech border.
10 US cities [84] PM10 Mortality 1986–1993 Poisson regression (GAM) 0.67% increases for a 10 μg/m3 (95% CI: 0.52%, 0.81%). No difference between summer and winter.
New Zealand [85] PM10 Mortality Jun 1988–Dec 1993 Poisson regression (GAM) 1% increase for all-cause mortality (95% CI: 0.5%, 2.2%); 4% increase for respiratory diseases (95% CI: 1.5%, 5.9%)
10 US cities [21] PM10 Mortality 1986–1993 Distributed lag model (GAM) 1.4% (95% CI: 1.15%, 1.68%) increase for 10 μg/m3 on a single day using a quadratic distributed lag model; 1.3% increase (95% CI: 1.04%, 1.56%) using an unstrained lag model
20 US cities [2] PM10, O3, SO2, CO, NO2 Mortality 1987–1994 Poisson regression (GAM) PM10: 0.51% increase (95% CI: 0.07%, 0.93%) per 10 μg/m3 for all causes; 0.68% increase per 10 μg/m3 for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases (95% CI: 0.20%, 1.16%)
O3: weaker evidence during the summer;
Other pollutants: no evidence
Hong Kong [86] PM10, SO2 Morality 1995–1998 Poisson regression (GAM) Significant associations were found between mortalities for all respiratory diseases and ischaemic heart diseases (IDH). The increases for all respiratory mortalities (for a 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration) are 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1%, 1.4%) for PM10 and 1.5% (95% CI: 0.1%, 2.9%) for SO2 ; the increases for IDH are 0.9% (95% CI: 0.0%, 1.8%) for O3 and 2.8% (95% CI: 1.2%, 4.4%) for SO2.
Seoul Korea[87] PM10 Mortality 1995–1999 Poisson regression (GAM) 3.7% increase (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.4%) for non-accident causes, 13.9% increase (95% CI: 6.8%, 21.5%) for respiratory disease, 4.4% increase (95% CI: -1.0%, 9.0%) for cardiovascular disease and 6.3% increase (95% CI: 2.3%, 10.5%) for cerebrovascular disease per IQR increase of PM10 (43.12 μg/m3)
Shanghai, China [88] PM10, SO2, NO2 Mortality Jun 2000 to Dec 2001 Poisson regression (GAM) 0.3% increase (95% CI: 0.1%, 0.5%) for PM10, 1.4% increase (95% CI: 0.8%, 2.0%) for SO2 and 1.5% increase (95% CI: 0.8%, 2.2%) for NO2 per 10 μg/m3
Brisbane, Australia [89] BSP, O3, SO2, NO2 Hospital admission 1987–1994 Poisson regression (GLM) BSP: 1.5% increase (95% CI: 0.6%, 2.3%) for respiratory diseases per 24-hr 10-5/m increase.
O3: 2.3% increase (95% CI: 0.6%, 2.3%) for respiratory disease per 8-hr unit increase.
SO2: 8.0% increase (95% CI: 3.0%, 13.1%) for respiratory disease per 24-hr unit increase.
NO2: -0.1% increase (95% CI: -0.3%, 0.2%) for respiratory disease per 1-hr-max unit increase.
Brazil [90] PM10, O3, SO2, CO, NO2 Respiratory disease Hospital admission 1993–1997 Distributed lag model 9.4% increase (95% CI: 7.9%, 10.9%) for 2 or less years old group and 7.0% (95% CI: 5.7%, 8.2%) for all age group per IQR PM10 increase (35 μg/m3);
1.6% increase (95% CI: 0.1%, 3.0%) for 2 or less years old group and 0.8% (95% CI: -7.5%, 9.2%) for all age group per IQR O3 increase (46 μg/m3);
5.9% increase (95% CI: 4.5%, 7.4%) for 2 or less years old group and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.3%, 5.8%) for all age group per IQR SO2 increase (14 μg/m3);
5.0% increase (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.8%) for 2 or less years old group and 4.9% (95% CI: 3.5%, 6.4%) for all age group per IQR CO increase (3 ppm);
9.4% increase (95% CI: 6.2%, 12.6%) for 2 or less years old group and 6.5% (95% CI: 3.3%, 9.7%) for all age group per IQR NO2 increase (80 μg/m3);