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Table 3 Independent effects of individual and area-based socioeconomic measures (not including traffic and land use variables) in the study of singleton births in Eastern Massachusetts between 1996 and 2002.

From: The effects of socioeconomic status and indices of physical environment on reduced birth weight and preterm births in Eastern Massachusetts

  Birth weight Small for gestational age Preterm birth
Model covariates Change (in grams) 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Mother's education       
   High school or less (≤ 12 years) -8.6 -12.9, -4.3 1.18 1.14, 1.22 1.11 1.06, 1.15
   Some college (13–15 years) Reference      
   College or postgraduate (≥ 16 years) 6.0 2.1, 10.0 1.05 1.01, 1.08 1.05 1.01, 1.09
Mother's race       
   White Reference      
   African-American -112.9 -119.6, -106.3 *   1.06 1.00, 1.11
   Asian -193.0 -199.4, -186.7    0.77 0.73, 0.82
   Hispanic -78.0 -83.6, -72.3    1.02 0.97, 1.07
APNCU       
   Inadequate -53.4 -59.2, -47.6 1.26 1.21, 1.31 4.52 4.25, 4.81
   Intermediate -39.0 -44.6, -33.3 1.12 1.08, 1.17 1.91 1.76, 2.08
   Appropriate Reference      
   Appropriate plus -11.1 -14.5, -7.6 0.98 0.96, 1.01 9.05 8.67, 9.45
Median household income 8.8 6.5, 11.2 0.92 0.91, 0.94 0.99 0.98, 1.01
  1. APNCU – adequacy of prenatal care utilization; CI – confidence interval; OR – odds ratio; SD – standard deviation
  2. Model controlled additionally for mother age, gestational age (for models with birth weight as the outcome), cigarette smoking during pregnancy, previous infant greater than 4000 grams, previous preterm birth, chronic or gestational conditions of mother, and year of birth.
  3. *Race is already controlled for in the definition of "small for gestational age"
  4. The effect is for 1 SD change in the median household income by tract