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Table 5 Odds ratios (95% CI) for associations between respiratory infection during the first 3 months after birth and pre- or postnatal exposure to organochlorine compoundsa

From: Immune cell counts and risks of respiratory infections among infants exposed pre- and postnatally to organochlorine compounds: a prospective study

  Modelb Exposure categoriesc   
Prenatal   Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4
CB 28+52+101 Unadjusted 1.0 1.5 (0.66–3.3) 2.6 (1.2–5.6)*  
  Multivariate 1.0 1.7 (0.71–4.1) 3.4 (1.4–7.8)*  
CB 153 Unadjusted 1.0 0.43 (0.18–1.04) 0.37 (0.15–0.91)* 0.54 (0.23–1.3)
  Multivariate 1.0 0.45 (0.17–1.19) 0.30 (0.10–0.88)* 0.42 (0.12–1.4)
Di-ortho PCB Unadjusted 1.0 0.35 (0.14–0.86)* 0.34 (0.14–0.83)* 0.49 (0.21–1.2)
  Multivariate 1.0 0.28 (0.10–0.79)* 0.23 (0.07–0.71)* 0.29 (0.08–1.0)
Mono-ortho PCB TEQ Unadjusted 1.0 0.71 (0.30–1.7) 0.54 (0.23–1.3) 0.46 (0.19–1.2)
  Multivariate 1.0 0.58 (0.22–1.6) 0.34 (0.10–1.1) 0.23 (0.06–0.91)*
p,p'-DDE Unadjusted 1.0 0.67 (0.27–1.6) 0.73 (0.30–1.78) 0.80 (0.34–1.9)
  Multivariate 1.0 0.64 (0.24–1.7) 0.69 (0.25–1.9) 0.74 (0.25–2.2)
Postnatal      
CB 28+52+101 Unadjusted 1.0 0.51 (0.19–1.4) 0.72 (0.28–1.9) 1.4 (0.58–3.4)
  Multivariate 1.0 0.44 (0.14–1.4) 0.65 (0.23–1.8) 1.4 (0.53–3.8)
CB 153 Unadjusted 1.0 0.55 (0.22–1.4) 0.66 (0.27–1.6) 0.37 (0.14–0.97)*
  Multivariate 1.0 0.38 (0.12–1.2) 0.40 (0.13–1.2) 0.20 (0.06–0.73)*
Di-ortho PCB Unadjusted 1.0 0.48 (0.19–1.2) 0.53 (0.21–1.3) 0.31 (0.12–0.83)*
  Multivariate 1.0 0.27 (0.08–0.87)* 0.26 (0.08–0.85)* 0.14 (0.04–0.50)*
Mono-ortho PCB TEQ Unadjusted 1.0 0.36 (0.14–0.97)* 0.53 (0.21–1.3) 0.69 (0.29–1.7)
  Multivariate 1.0 0.23 (0.07–0.79)* 0.37 (0.12–1.2) 0.33 (0.10–1.1)
p,p'-DDE Unadjusted 1.0 0.25 (0.09–0.71)* 0.53 (0.21–1.3) 0.69 (0.29–1.7)
  Multivariate 1.0 0.18 (0.06–0.60)* 0.40 (0.14–1.2) 0.52 (0.17–1.5)
  1. aPrenatal exposure: lipid adjusted mother's serum organochlorine compound concentrations in late pregnancy (week 32–34). Postnatal exposure: mother's milk concentrations on a fresh weight basis*days of nursing*(%of full nursing/100). Di-ortho PCB = CB-138, CB-153, CB-180; Mono-ortho PCB TEQ = CB-105, CB-118, CB-156, CB-167 [32]. Prenatal exposure:N = 190. Postnatal exposure:N = 175.
  2. bMultivariate model also included the independent variables age of the mother, smoking and alcohol during pregnancy, mother's education, vaccination of the infant, nursing of the infant, and age of the infant.
  3. cPre- and postnatal exposure was categorized with the lowest exposure in Category 1 and increasing exposure with increasing Category number. Efforts were made to have equal numbers of participants in the exposure categories for each compound group.
  4. * Significantly different from the odds ratio of the reference category (p ≤ 0.05).