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Table 2 Multivariate regression analyses. Odds ratios (95% CI) for APP and Beta-coefficients for NO2.

From: A comparison of self reported air pollution problems and GIS-modeled levels of air pollution in people with and without chronic diseases

   Logistic regression analysis
Dependent variable: APP
OLS regression analysis
Dependent variable: NO2
Variables   Initial model: OR (95% CI) Full model: OR (95% CI) Standardized Beta Coefficients
Age 30 years 1.00 1.00 Ref.
  40 or 45 years 1.00 (0.88 – 1.13) 1.01 (0.89 – 1.15) -.062***
  60 years 0.91 (0.79 – 1.05) 1.03 (0.88 – 1.19) -.054***
  75 years 0.54 (0.43 – 0.66)*** 0.71 (0.57 – 0.89)** -.001***
Sex Men 1.00 1.00 Ref.
  Women 1.09 (0.99 – 1.19) 1.10 (0.99 – 1.21) .003
Employment status Fulltime 1.00 1.00 Ref.
  Part-time 1.08 (0.92 – 1.26) 1.01 (0.85 – 1.19) -.022**
  Not working 1.40 (1.21 – 1.62)*** 1.14 (0.97 – 1.33) -.038**
Education Low 1.00 1.00 Ref.
  High 0.98 (0.88 – 1.08) 0.94 (0.84 – 1.05) -.018*
Smoking Never 1.00 1.00 Ref.
  Yes, former 1.09 (0.98 – 1.22) 1.08 (0.96 – 1.21) .009
  Yes, current 1.00 (0.89 – 1.12) 1.02 (0.90 – 1.16) .036***
Area deprivation 1st quintile (low) 1.00 1.00 Ref.
  2nd quintile 2.01 (1.72 – 2.35)*** 1.89 (1.60 – 2.23)*** .233***
  3rd quintile 1.80 (1.52 – 2.14)*** 1.69 (1.41 – 2.02)*** -.020*
  4th quintile 1.63 (1.38 – 1.92)*** 1.49 (1.25 – 1.77)*** -.002
  5th quintile (high) 2.56 (2.18 – 3.02)*** 2.13 (1.79 – 2.53)*** .280***
Season of examination Winter 1.00 1.00 Ref.
  Spring 1.40 (1.23 – 1.59)*** 1.43 (1.24 – 1.64)*** -.147***
  Summer 1.45 (1.25 – 1.69)*** 1.50 (1.28 – 1.76)*** -.266***
  Autumn 1.08 (0.96 – 1.22) 1.10 (0.97 – 1.24) -.150***
NO2 1st quintile (low) 1.00 1.00  
  2nd quintile 1.69 (1.39 – 2.05)*** 1.67 (1.37 – 2.04)***  
  3rd quintile 3.07 (2.56 – 3.68)*** 2.98 (2.47 – 3.60)***  
  4th quintile 3.97 (3.31 – 4.77)*** 3.79 (3.13 – 4.59)***  
  5th quintile (high) 5.17 (4.31 – 6.20)*** 4.90 (4.04 – 5.93)***  
Pollution due to wood or oil heating/factory etc. No   1.00 Ref.
  Yes   9.96 (8.18 – 12.30)*** .023**
Type of dwelling House/villa   1.00 Ref.
  Blocks   1.41 (1.23 – 1.63)*** .057***
  Other types   1.58 (1.26 – 1.99)*** .062***
Dwelling damp, draughts or cold No   1.00 Ref.
  Yes   1.35 (1.16 – 1.57)*** -.012
Poor indoor climate No   1.00 Ref.
  Yes   2.49 (2.07 – 2.98)*** -.010
Depression No   1.00 Ref.
  Some   1.37 (1.23 – 1.53)*** -.009
  Yes   1.22 (1.02 – 1.47)* .001
Asthma No 1.00 1.00 Ref.
  Yes 1.51 (1.30 – 1.76)*** 1.31 (1.12 – 1.55)** -.012
APP No    Ref.
  Yes    .164***
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001