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Table 5 Associations between pollutant exposure and cardiovascular disease in women

From: Chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution and diagnosed cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of three large cross-sectional surveys

   1994 1998 2003 Combined estimate*
   n % increase (95% CI) n % increase (95% CI) n % increase (95% CI) n % increase (95% CI)
PM10 Crude 3904 1.63 4202 -0.89 4182 6.47   
    (-2.52, 5.96)   (-5.26, 3.67)   (1.09, 12.15)   
  Adjusted 3385 1.02 3596 -2.91 3469 8.63 10440 1.61
    (-4.14, 6.47)   (-9.62, 4.30)   (0.58, 17.32)   (-2.10, 5.45)
NO2 Crude 3904 0.12 4202 0.34 4182 1.78   
    (-0.79, 1.04)   (-0.75, 1.44)   (0.44, 3.13)   
  Adjusted 3385 -0.10 3596 -0.27 3469 1.55 10440 0.18
    (-1.35, 1.16)   (-1.83, 1.31)   (-0.39, 3.53)   (-0.69, 1.07)
SO2 Crude 3904 0.30 4202 2.01 4197 10.46   
    (-1.24, 1.86)   (0.16, 3.90)   (5.72, 15.40)   
  Adjusted 3385 -0.34 3596 1.32 3482 8.35 10463 0.80
    (2.34, 1.70)   (-1.22, 3.92)   (1.98, 15.12)   (-0.73, 2.36)
O3 Crude 3851 -0.60 4169 -0.04 4153 -3.21   
    (-2.76, 1.60)   (-2.79, 2.79)   (-6.20, -0.12)   
  Adjusted 3333 0.51 3568 1.55 3453 0.23 10354 0.74
    (-2.64, 3.75)   (-2.72, 6.00)   (-4.70, 5.43)   (-1.53, 3.07)
  1. Estimates are % increase in odds of cardiovascular disease with 1 μg m-3 increase in pollutant concentration
  2. Adjusted estimates are adjusted for age (10 year age groups), social class of head of household (6 groups), body mass index (quartiles), cigarette smoking (never, ex-, current, and region of residence (8 groups), all as categorical variables
  3. *Combined estimate is derived from a fixed effects meta-analysis of year-specific estimates using inverse variance weighting.