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Table 1 Controlled human exposure studies in patients with ischemic heart disease and metabolic syndrome.

From: Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

Study Subject (number) Design Particles Results
Routledge et al [25] Healthy volunteers (20)
Patients with multivessel coronary disease (20)
Placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized Filtered air
Carbon (50 μg/m3)
SO2 (200 ppb)
Carbon + SO2
Small increases in RR interval, SDNN, rMSSD LF power immediately post-carbon exposure; Decreased RR interval, SDNN, rMSSD, and PNN50 at 4 hours post-SO2 exposure
Mills et al [29] Healthy volunteers (30) Double-blind, randomized, crossover Filtered air
Diesel exhaust (300 μg/m3)
Attenuated forearm blood flow increase induced by bradykinin, acetylcholine, and nitroprusside infusion at 2 and 6 hours after exposure;
Suppressed the bradykinin-induced release in plasma t-PA 6 hours after exposure
Mills et al [24] Patients with prior myocardial infarction (20) Double-blind, randomized, crossover Filtered air
Diesel exhaust (300 μg/m3)
Greater increase in the exercise-induced ischemic burden and decrement of ST segment during exposure;
No effects on preexisting vasomotor dysfunction at 6 hours post-exposure;
Reduced the bradykinin-induced release of endothelial t-PA
Tornqvist et al [30] Healthy volunteers (15) Double-blind, randomized, crossover Filtered air
Diesel exhaust (300 μg/m3)
Decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation;
No effects on endothelium-independent vasodilatation or the bradykinin-induced release of endothelial t-PA
Mills et al [31] Age-matched healthy volunteer (12)
Patients with stable coronary artery disease (12)
Double-blind, randomized, crossover Filtered air
Fine and ultrafine CAPS (190 μg/m3)
CAPS did not affect vasomotor or fibrinolytic function in either middle-aged healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease.
Peretz et al [35] Healthy subjects (10)
Metabolic syndrome (17)
Double-blind, randomized, crossover Filtered air
Diesel exhaust (100 and 200 μg/m3)
Decreased brachial artery diameter, increased plasma ET-1; No differences between healthy subjects and patients with metabolic syndrome
Carlsten et al [36] Metabolic syndrome (16) Double-blind, randomized, crossover Filtered air
Diesel exhaust (100 and 200 μg/m3)
Decreased vWF at 7 hours postexposure
Carlsten et al [37] Healthy subjects (13) Double-blind, randomized, crossover Filtered air
Diesel exhaust (100 and 200 μg/m3)
No changes in prothrombotic endpoints