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Table 1 Demographic, medical, and lifestyle characteristics by cognitive status

From: Effect of sunlight exposure on cognitive function among depressed and non-depressed participants: a REGARDS cross-sectional study

Characteristics All Subjects
(N = 16800)
Missing Intact Cognitive Status
(N = 15421; 92%)
Impaired Cognitive Status
(N = 1379; 8%)
p-value
  N (%) N N (%) N (%)  
Demographics      
   Male 6657 (40) 0 6033 (39) 624 (45) <0.0001
   Education   19    
Less than High School 2081 (12)   1719 (11) 362 (26)  
High School 4404 (26)   3978 (26) 426 (31) <0.0001
Some College 4525 (27)   4230 (27) 305 (22)  
College Diploma 5761 (34)   5480 (36) 281 (20)  
   Age   5    
Less than 55 years 2077 (12)   1982 (13) 95 (7)  
55 to 59 years 2908 (17)   2756 (18) 152 (11)  
60 to 64 years 3197 (19)   3009 (20) 188 (14) <0.0001
65 to 69 years 3117 (19)   2870 (19) 247 (18)  
70 to 74 years 2418 (14)   2172 (14) 246 (18)  
75 to 79 years 1765 (11)   1536 (10) 229 (17)  
80 or more years 1313 (8)   1091 (7) 222 (16)  
   Income   2171    
Less than $20,000/year 3097 (21)   2698 (20) 399 (35)  
$20,000–35,000/year 4017 (27)   3633 (27) 384 (33) <0.0001
$35,000-$75,000/year 4968 (34)   4678 (35) 290 (25)  
Over $75,000/year 2547 (17)   2467 (18) 80 (7)  
   Region   0    
Non Belt/Buckle 7850 (47)   7211 (47) 639 (46) 0.13
Stroke Belt 6095 (36)   5567 (36) 528 (38)  
Stoke Buckle 2855 (17)   2643 (17) 212 (15)  
   Population Density   0    
Urban 13532 (81)   12365 (80) 1167 (85)  
Mixed 1678 (10)   1571 (10) 107 (8) 0.0003
Rural 1590 (9)   1485 (10) 105 (8)  
   Season   0    
Spring 3610 (22)   3260 (21) 350 (25) <0.0001
Summer 6439 (38)   5998 (39) 441 (32)  
Fall 3410 (20)   3181 (21) 229 (17)  
Winter 3341 (20)   2982 (19) 359 (26)  
Medical Factors      
   BMI   238    
Underweight 212 (1)   189 (1) 23 (2)  
Normal 3973 (24)   3651 (24) 322 (24) 0.26
Overweight 5970 (36)   5462 (36) 508 (38)  
Obese 6407 (39)   5906 (39) 501 (37)  
   Diabetic 3527 (22) 623 3150 (21) 377 (29) <0.0001
   Hypertensive 9854 (59) 73 8943 (58) 911 (67) <0.0001
   High Cholesterol 1740 (10) 80 1595 (10) 145 (11) 0.85
   Depressed 1877 (11) 155 1624 (11) 253 (18) <0.0001
   PCS-12 (mean, stddev) 46.1 (10.6) 0 46.3 (10.5) 44.0 (11.0) <.0001
Lifestyle Factors      
   Never Used Alcohol 5129 (31) 0 4606 (30) 523 (40) <0.0001
   No weekly exercise 5948 (36) 234 5359 (35) 589 (44) <0.0001
   Smoking   67    
Current 2445 (15)   2227 (15) 218 (16) 0.18
Past 6609 (40)   6055 (39) 554 (40)  
Never 7679 (46)   7078 (46) 601 (44)  
  1. stddev = standard deviation; BMI = Body Mass Index; PCS = Physical Components Summary
  2. P-values for categorical variables provided from a chi squared test statistic and for continuous variables provided from a scatterthwaite t-test statistic calculated for each variable by cognitive status.
  3. P-values in bold indicate values that are significant at α = 0.05.