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Table 1 The distribution of confounders between "cases" i.e. individuals reporting hypertension and "non-cases" being those not reporting hypertension divided in three groups by level of road traffic noise exposure.

From: Road traffic noise and hypertension: results from a cross-sectional public health survey in southern Sweden

  Cases Non-cases   
LAeq 24 hr (dB) All (0-71) <45 45-54 ≥55
Individuals per group 4644 4688 9337 5569
  median (q1-q3) median (q1-q3) median (q1-q3) median (q1-q3)
Age 61 (53-69) 45 (35-57) 45 (33-58) 42 (30-57)
BMI 26.7 (24.3-29.4) 24.4 (22.3-26.9) 24.5 (22.2-27.1) 24.2 (22-26.6)
Alcohol consumption index 3 (1-4) 3 (2-4) 3 (2-4) 3 (2-5)
  N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Smoking     
   Never 2319 (49.9) 2763 (58.9) 5197 (55.7) 2992 (53.7)
   Former 1485 (32) 1087 (23.2) 2180 (23.3) 1258 (22.6)
   Current (not every day) 159 (3.4) 187 (4) 463 (5) 305 (5.5)
   Current (every day) 681 (14.7) 651 (13.9) 1497 (16) 1014 (18.2)
Sex     
   Man 2439 (52.5) 2101 (44.8) 4115 (44.1) 2447 (43.9)
   Woman 2205 (47.5) 2587 (55.2) 5222 (55.9) 3122 (56.1)
Education     
   Lower education 3502(75.4) 3054 (65.1) 6004 (64.3) 3405 (61.1)
   Higher education 1142(24.6) 1634 (34.9) 3333 (35.7) 2164 (38.9)
Exercise     
   Mainly sedentary 819 (17.6) 551 (11.8) 1165 (12.5) 741 (13.3)
   Light/Moderate 3306 (71.2) 3366 (71.8) 6561 (70.3) 3823 (68.6)
   Regular 519 (11.2) 771 (16.4) 1611 (17.3) 1005 (18)
Socioeconomic status     
   High level non-manual 291 (6.3) 545 (11.6) 1030 (11) 664 (11.9)
   Middle level non-manual 427 (9.2) 836 (17.8) 1549 (16.6) 839 (15.1)
   low level non-manual 282 (6.1) 427 (9.1) 761 (8.2) 429 (7.7)
   Skilled manual 349 (7.5) 537 (11.5) 1083 (11.6) 564 (10.1)
   Unskilled manual 479 (10.3) 690 (14.7) 1406 (15.1) 799 (14.3)
   Self-employed/Farmer 205 (4.4) 407 (8.7) 465 (5) 262 (4.7)
   Disabilty pension 424 (9.1) 176 (3.8) 377 (4) 231 (4.1)
   Unemployed 175 (3.8) 190 (4.1) 431 (4.6) 354 (6.4)
   Stuadent 77 (1.7) 296 (6.3) 829 (8.9) 628 (11.3)
   Old-age pension 1833 (39.5) 514 (11) 1252 (13.4) 718 (12.9)
   Long-term sickness absence 102 (2.2) 70 (1.5) 154 (1.6) 81 (1.5)