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Table 3 Recent Studies Identifying Vulnerable Subgroups of Mortality from High Ambient Temperature

From: High ambient temperature and mortality: a review of epidemiologic studies from 2001 to 2008

Reference Study location Study design Exposure Causes of death Result
Baccini 2008 [12] 15 European cities, April-September 1990-2000 (5-11 years depending on data availability for city) Time-series Maximum apparent temperature (threshold 29.4°C Mediterranean cities and 23.3°C north-continental cities) Daily all-cause mortality Respiratory diseases among 75+ years
Basu and Ostro 2008 [14] 9 California counties, May to September 1999-2003 Case-crossover Mean daily apparent temperature Cause-specific mortality; all-cause mortality by age, race/ethnicity, gender, education level Cardiovascular, higher specifically for ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure, ≤ 1 year, ≤ 5 years, elderly, Black race, out of hospital death; no elevated risks for cerebrovascular, diabetes, respiratory; no difference by gender or high school graduation
Bell 2008 [15] Sao Paulo, Brazil, Santiago, Chile and Mexico City, Mexico, 1998-2002 Case-crossover Same day apparent temperature Daily all-cause mortality 65+ years, women in Mexico City, but men in Santiago and Sao Paulo, less educated in Sao Paulo
Ishigami 2008 [24] Budapest, London and Milan, 2003 Time-series Mean daily temperature (lag0 and lag1), PM10 (TSP in Budapest), ozone Daily all-cause mortality Increased age, females 65+ years greater risk in London and Milan and non-elderly adults in Milan; mortality from external causes, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases
Stafoggia 2008 [30] 4 Italian cities, 1997-2004 Case-crossover Apparent temperature 30°C compared to 20°C Deaths in hospitals for those with 2+ days in hospital Increased age, single general medicine compared to high and intensive care units, history of psychiatric disorders, cerebrovascular diseases, heart failure, stroke, chronic pulmonary diseases
Vaneckova 2008a [46] Sydney, Australia, October to March 1993-2001 Time-series Temporal Synoptic Index (TSI); ratio of highest 10% mortality days within air mass and % frequency of air mass occurrence Daily all-cause mortality 65+ years, women
Yip 2008 [52] Maricopa County, Arizona, June to September
Time-series Heat index Heat-related deaths Young and old outdoors, but greater risk for elderly indoors
Hajat 2007 [25] England and Wales,
Time-series Heat (> 95th %) and cold (< 5th %) thresholds All-cause mortality Elderly, those in nursing care homes respiratory and external causes, women; not modified by deprivation in London
Medina-Ramon 2007 [21] 50 US cities in cold (November to March) and warm (May to September) seasons Case-crossover Binary variable as extreme temperature and continuous; ozone All-cause and CVD mortality Cities with milder summers, less air conditioning and higher population density
Diaz 2006 [35] Madrid, January 1986-December 1997 Time-series T(hwave) = Tmax-36.5C if Tmax>36.5C; 5th % to 95th % temperature, NO2 AR = (RR-1)/RR for daily mortality Circulatory causes, males 45-64 years
Stafoggia 2006 [16] Bologna, Milan, Rome, Turin, 1997-2003 Case-crossover 30°C mean apparent temperature (lag01) relative to 20°C; odds ratio All-cause mortality and previous hospitalization Increased age and greater for women, widows and widowers, psychiatric disorders, depression, heart and circulatory disorders
Hajat 2005 [48] Delhi, Sao Paulo, London, January 1991-December 1994 Time-series Daily temperature
(lag 0,1) greater than 20°C
Daily all-cause mortality Respiratory deaths in Sao Paulo and London; children in Delhi
O'Neill, Zanobetti and Schwartz 2005 [37] Chicago, Detroit, Minneapolis, Pittsburgh, 1988-1993 for Chicago and 1986-1993 for other cities Time-series Percent change daily mean temperature 29°C relative to 15°C (lag0), barometric pressure, day of the week, PM10 Mortality, prevalence of air conditioner (AC) Black race, lack of air conditioner
Gouveia 2003 [33] Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1991-1994 Time-series Daily mean temperature (lag01), SO2, PM10, CO, O3, NO2, day of the week, season, humidity Daily all-cause mortality, excluding violent deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality Greatest for 65+years and < 15 years, also increased for15-64 years; elderly cardiovascular, respiratory for adults and elderly; no modification by socioeconomic status
O'Neill 2003 [38] 7 US cities,
Time-series Mean daily apparent temperature (% change 29°C and -5°C), PM10 Daily all-cause mortality, looking at effect modification by demographics & other variables Black race, less educated, and outside hospital
Rainham and Smoyer-Tomic 2003 [42] Toronto, May 1 to September 30, 1980-1996 Time-series Humidex, CO, O3, NO2, SO2 Daily all-cause mortality Females
Curriero 2002 [39] 11 Eastern US cities, 1973-1994 Time-series Daily mean temperature, dew point temperature; minimum mortality temperature (MMT) range: 65.2-90.3 Daily all-cause mortality, excluding accidents Higher latitude, more poverty, less air conditioning or heating