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Table 4 Risk estimates based on comparisons of reconstructed absorbed dose of malathion and chlorpyrifos with WHO's ADI

From: Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL)-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

Scenario Risk estimatea No. of risk estimates >1
Metabolites considered mean SD median max  
1- Comparison of the dose, reconstructed from creatinine-adjusted concentrations, with the ADI      
Methylphosphates 1.10 2.18 0.51 29.1 130
Ethylphosphates 0.05 0.08 0.03 0.8 0
Sum of methyl + ethylphosphates 1.18 2.21 0.55 29.4 139
2- Comparison of the dose, reconstructed from volume-weighted concentrations, with the ADI      
Methylphosphates 0.30 0.55 0.13 7.5 22
Ethylphosphates 0.07 0.13 0.04 1.6 2
Sum of methyl + ethylphosphates 0.36 0.61 0.19 7.8 33
  1. a The risk estimate corresponds to the ratio of calculated dose, reconstructed from methyl and ethyl phosphate urinary excretion, divided by WHO's ADI.