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Table 1 Summary of specific hazards encountered when processing toxic cyanobacteria to produce cyanotoxins, and recommended control measures

From: Occupational and environmental hazard assessments for the isolation, purification and toxicity testing of cyanobacterial toxins

Procedure Hazard Control measure
Bulk harvesting - wet biomass Oral exposure Avoid accidental immersion
  Cutaneous and mucous membrane exposure PPE: waterproof boots, gloves, waders; avoid splash generation
  Inhalation exposure Work in calm water condition
Bulk harvesting - dry biomass Cutaneous and mucous membrane exposure PPE: gloves, overalls
  Inhalation exposure Consider wetting prior to harvest, otherwise protective respirator mask
Laboratory culture of toxic cyanobacteria Cutaneous and mucous membrane exposure PPE: gloves, lab coat, eye splash protection for specific procedures. Contingency procedures to manage accidental spillage
  Inhalation exposure Discontinue aeration for 5 minutes before opening culture vessels
Concentration, lyophilisation, powdering Cutaneous and mucous membrane exposure PPE: gloves, lab coat, eye splash protection
  Inhalational exposure Low-flow fume cupboard
   PPE: face mask
Solvent extraction, sonication, filtration, chromatography, Cutaneous and mucous membrane exposure PPE: gloves, lab coat, eye splash protection for specific procedures
  Inhalational exposure PPE: face mask for procedures affording risk of spray generation
Lyophilisation of pure product Cutaneous exposure PPE: gloves, lab coat
  Inhalational exposure Care to avoid vessel breakage
   PPE: face mask
Toxicity studies using in vivo models Parenteral exposure Care when handling hypodermic needles, restraint of animals for dosing
  Cutaneous exposure PPE: gloves, lab coat
  Inhalational exposure Procedures to minimise or eliminate aerosol formation when disposing of urine. Experimental design features to avoid dry dust dispersal in feeding studies
   PPE: face mask if aerosols likely