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Table 1 An overview of typical concentrations of toxic trace metals reported in non-invasive human matrices (arithmetic mean (rangea))

From: Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

  As Cd Hg (total) Pb
Urine
(μg/l)
6.4 (ND-157)
[37]
0.34 (ND-31.5)
[37]
0.89 (ND – 34.8)
[37]
1.3 (0.1–4.6)b
0.8 (0.02–4.8)c
[38]
Urine
(μg/g creatinine)
4.9 (ND-163)
[37]
0.27 (ND-22.4)
[37]
0.59 (ND-16.0)
[37]
0.8d (0.2–3.4)b
0.5d (0.1–4.6)c
[38]
Placenta
(ng/g wet weight)
6 (3–12)
[13]
4 (1–6)
[13]
8 (2–13)
[13]
34 (5–60)
[13]
Cord blood
(μg/l)
15.7 (2.9–74.6)
[33]
0.02 (ND-0.08)
[34]
10 (ND-75)
[35]
11.2 (0.9 – 122)
[34]
Exhaled breath (μg/l) - - (ND-1.70)
[60]
- - (ND-1.4)
[60]
Breast milk
(μg/l)
0.3 (0.1–0.8)
[41]
0.1 (0.1–3.8)
[41]
2.7 (0.64–257.1)
[41]
5 (ND-41.1)
[41]
Hair
(μg/g)
0.65 (0.2–8.2)
[44]
0.08 (ND-8.19)
[45]
0.2 (0.04–1.73)e
[46]
2.26 (ND-583.5)
[45]
  1. a Range may include high levels at which adverse effects are expected; b Data for children; c Data for adults; d Geometric mean; e Mean (P10-P95); f ND: below detection limit