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Table 2 An overview of typical concentrations of toxic organic compounds reported in non-invasive human matrices (arithmetic mean (rangea))

From: Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)
(ng/g lipid)
PCDD/F
(in pg TEQ/g lipid)
Cotinine
(in non-smokers)
Urine
(μg/l)
PCP: 3.8 (0.6–18.0)c
PCBT: 8.8 (0.5–86.9)c
[57]
- 17.9 (ND-3400)
[37]
Urine
(μg/g creatinine)
- - 17.1 (ND-5810)
[37]
Placenta
(ng/g wet weight)
7.7b (2.2–26.5)
[49]
31 (10–74)
[47]
-
Cord blood
(μg/l)
0.73 (0.14–9.82)
[50]
14 (3.7–32)
[47]
3.08 (ND-910)
[51]
Exhaled breath (μg/l) - - 21 (ND-42)e
[59]
Breast milk
(ng/g lipid)
12.4 (6.01–24.56)
[49]
9.5 (2.7–51.5)
[52]
0.2 (0.03–1.3)
[53]
Hair
(μg/g)
28 (20–32)d
[89]
- (0.25–230)
[26]
0.29 (ND-11)
[45]
  1. a Range may include high levels at which adverse effects are expected; b Arithmetic mean (P10-P95); c Metabolites of HCB, expressed in μg/24 h; d Median (P25-P75); e Cotinine in saliva; f ND: below detection limit