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Table 1 Characteristics of NHANES III subjects by urinary 2,4-D below and above the LOD

From: Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

Characteristics   Urinary 2,4-D
  Missing(n) < LOD (n = 625) ≥ LOD (n = 102)
   % %
   Male 0 57 66
   Ethnicity 0   
Non-Hispanic White   36 43
Non-Hispanic Black   36 26
Mexican American   25 25
Other   2 5
   Smoking 0   
Nonsmokers   49 50
Past smokers   18 16
Active smokers   33 34
   Alcohol use ≥ 30 times/month 0 9 7
   High school completed 0 71 70
   Income ≥ 20 K 6 58 48
   BMI (kg/m2) 9   
< 25   41 40
25-29   37 37
≥ 30   22 24
   Mean (SE) Mean (SE)
   Age (years) 0 35.6 (0.4) 34.7 (1.1)
   Urinary creatinine, mg/dl * 0 144.6 (3.5) 200.5 (9.1)
   Hours of fasting 3 11.2 (0.2) 11.8 (0.5)
   Thyroxine, μg/dl 10 8.59 (0.08) 8.49 (0.20)
   Glycosylated hemoglobin, % 2 5.16 (0.02) 5.17 (0.05)
   Outcome variables    
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl * 9 51.3 (0.6) 46.9 (1.3)
Triglycerides, mg/dl 9 127.0 (4.1) 139.0 (10.9)
Non-HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 9 144.4 (1.7) 146.3 (4.5)
Serum insulin, μU/ml 7 10.6 (0.3) 11.3 (0.8)
Serum C-peptide, pmol/ml 8 0.65 (0.02) 0.69 (0.05)
Plasma glucose, mg/dl 6 91.2 (0.5) 91.3 (1.4)
TSH, mU/L 6 1.67 (0.05) 1.57 (0.13)
  1. * Wilcoxon test (2-sided) shows a statistically significant difference between subjects with urinary 2,4-D
  2. above and below the LOD with regard to HDL (p-value = 0.006) and urinary creatinine (p-value < 0.0001).