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Table 5 Linear regression analysis of log(insulin) on 2,4-D and covariates for ages 20-59, NHANES III, 1988-1994.

From: Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

Independent variables All available subjects (n = 703) Susceptible subpopulations
   HbA1c > 5.1% T4 ≤ 8.5 μg/dl
   (n = 340) (n = 342)
  Estimate (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI)
Intercept 3.669 3.495 2.962
  (2.973, 4.364)a (2.430, 4,560)a (1.944, 3.980)a
2,4-D, binary 0.763 2.611 1.451
  (-0.616, 2.142) (0.447, 4.775)c (-0.442, 3.344)
Log(HDL) for 2,4-D < LOD -0.412 -0.396 -0.295
  (-0.558, -0.265)a (-0.627, -0.165)a (-0.508, -0.081)b
Log(HDL) for 2,4-D ≥ 2,4-D -0.600 -1.076 -0.657
  (-0.944, -0.257)a (-1.605, -0.547)c (-1.123, -0.191)b
Log(urinary creatinine) -0.009 0.015 0.001
  (-0.063, 0.044) (-0.067, 0.098) (-0.078, 0.080)
Gender -0.093 -0.087 -0.044
  (-0.170, -0.016)c (-0.203, 0.030) (-0.160, 0.071)
Age (years) 0.001 0.002 0.002
  (-0.003, 0.004) (-0.004, 0.007) (-0.003, 0.007)
Non-Hispanic Black 0.171 0.183 0.175
  (0.082, 0.259)a (0.047, 0.319)b (0.046, 0.303)b
Mexican American 0.096 0.087 0.129
  (0.004, 0.188)c (-0.059, 0.234) (-0.017, 0.274)
Other ethnicity 0.232 0.074 0.131
  (0.017, 0.447)c (-0.228, 0.376) (-0.175, 0.437)
Past smoker -0.023 -0.046 0.031
  (-0.120, 0.074) (-0.188, 0.096) (-0.107, 0.168)
Active smoker -0.112 -0.186 -0.064
  (-0.192, -0.033)b (-0.307, -0.066)b (-0.182, 0.054)
BMI 25-29 kg/m2 0.310 0.325 0.368
  (0.228, 0.392)a (0.197, 0.453)a (0.249, 0.486)a
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 0.687 0.672 0.795
  (0.590, 0.785)a (0.533, 0.811)a (0.648, 0.943)a
Alcohol consumption -0.081 -0.089 -0.052
  (-0.209, 0.046) (-0.275, 0.097) (-0.213, 0.109)
Income ≥ 20K (%) -0.045 -0.013 0.004
  (-0.119, 0.030) (-0.123, 0.096) (-0.108, 0.116)
Hours of fasting -0.008 -0.007 -0.010
  (-0.016, 0.000)c (-0.018, 0.005) (-0.021, 0.002)
  1. a p ≤ 0.001, b p ≤ 0.01, c p ≤ 0.05
  2. P-values for the interaction term log(HDL)*2,4-D are 0.30 for all subjects, 0.02 for subjects with HbA1c > 5.1%, and 0.15 for subjects with T4 ≤ 8.5 μg/dl.