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Table 7 Linear regression analysis of log(plasma glucose) on 2,4-D and covariates for ages 20-59, NHANES III, 1988-1994.

From: Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

Independent variables All available subjects (n = 708) Susceptible subpopulations
   HbA1c > 5.1% T4 ≤ 8.5 μg/dl
   (n = 344) (n = 344)
  Estimate (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI)
Intercept 4.490 4.559 4.605
  (4.340, 4.639)a (4.316, 4.801)a (4.381, 4.829)a
2,4-D, binary 0.009 0.175 0.059
  (-0.290, 0.308) (-0.323, 0.674) (-0.364, 0.481)
Log(HDL) for 2,4-D < LOD -0.025 -0.037 -0.044
  (-0.056, 0.007) (-0.090, 0.016) (-0.091, 0.003)
Log(HDL) for 2,4-D ≥ LOD -0.027 -0.080 -0.061
  (-0.102, 0.047) (-0.202, 0.042) (-0.165, 0.043)
Log(urinary creatinine) -0.003 -0.010 -0.010
  (-0.014, 0.009) (-0.028, 0.009) (-0.028, 0.007)
Gender 0.030 0.022 0.032
  (0.014, 0.047)a (-0.005, 0.049) (0.006, 0.057)c
Age (years) 0.003 0.003 0.002
  (0.002, 0.003)a (0.002, 0.004)a (0.001, 0.003)a
Non-Hispanic Black -0.017 -0.007 -0.004
  (-0.036, 0.002) (-0.038, 0.025) (-0.033, 0.024)
Mexican American 0.006 0.008 0.004
  (-0.014, 0.025) (-0.026, 0.042) (-0.028, 0.037)
Other ethnicity 0.063 0.046 0.084
  (0.016, 0.109)b (-0.023, 0.116) (0.016, 0.152)c
Past smoker 0.001 -0.011 -0.008
  (-0.021, 0.022) (-0.043, 0.022) (-0.039, 0.023)
Active smoker -0.005 -0.016 -0.004
  (-0.023, 0.012) (-0.044, 0.012) (-0.030, 0.023)
BMI 25-29 kg/m2 0.024 0.021 0.048
  (0.006, 0.042)b (-0.009, 0.050) (0.021, 0.074)a
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 0.070 0.066 0.097
  (0.049, 0.091)a (0.034, 0.097)a (0.064, 0.129)a
Alcohol consumption -0.019 -0.040 -0.013
  (-0.046, 0.008) (-0.082, 0.002) (-0.049, 0.023)
Income ≥ 20K (%) -0.007 0.004 -0.001
  (-0.022, 0.010) (-0.021, 0.029) (-0.025, 0.024)
Hours of fasting 0.003 0.004 0.001
  (0.001, 0.004)b (0.001, 0.006)b (-0.002, 0.003)
  1. a p ≤ 0.001, b p ≤ 0.01, c p ≤ 0.05
  2. P-values for the interaction term log(HDL)*2,4-D are 0.95 for all subjects, 0.52 for subjects with HbA1c > 5.1%, and 0.77 for subjects with T4 ≤ 8.5 μg/dl.