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Table 2 Evidence of association between sub-daily exposure to PM and SDNNa

From: Cardiovascular effects of sub-daily levels of ambient fine particles: a systematic review

Authors Subjects Design Exposure Levels Dur. Lags SDNN
Adar et al., 2007 Aged 62-92 yrs, 82% HT Epi. PM2.5 mean on bus: 17 μg/m3 (SD10); BC also measured; 5', 30', 1, 4 hb Lag0 ↓ with PM2.5 and BC (more on bus (5' dur.)
Chang et al., 2007 Mean age 66 yrs (SD7), 47% CVD, 60% HT Epi. Mean personal PM2.5: 31 μg/m3 (SD27); Other PM size also measured; 1 to 6 hb Lag0 ↓ with PM2.5-10; ↑ with PM1-2.5
Chuang et al., 2007 Mean age 70 yrs (SD12), with or at risk of CVD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 hrly mean: 52 μg/m3 (SD40); SO42- and OC also measured; 1 to 4 h Lag0 ↓ mostly with SO42-
Chuang et al. 2005 Mean age 68.1 yrs (SD3.6), 39% CVD, 61% HT Epi. Mean personal PM1-2.5: CVD:11 μg/m3 (SD9) and HT 13 (SD8); 1 to 4 h Lag0 ↓ with PM0.3-1; - with PM1-10
Gold et al., 2000 Mean age 73 yrs (53-87), 29% CVD, 57% HT Epi. Fixed site PM2.5, 4 h mean: 15 μg/m3 (3-49); PM10 also measured; 1 and 4 hb Lag0 ↓ with PM2.5
Lipsett et al., 2006 Mean age 71 yrs (SD6), with CVD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 daily mean at 2 sites: 23 μg/m3 (6-90) and 14 (5-52); PM10 also measured; 2, 4, 6 hb Lag0 ↓ with PM10; - with PM2.5
Magari et al., 2002 Mean age 43 yrs (SD13) Epi. Daily mean personal PM2.5: 150 μg/m3 (SD292); 15'to 6 hb Lag0 ↓ up to 6 h dur.
Luttmann-Gibson et al., 2006 Mean age 71 yrs (54-90), 84% CVD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 daily mean: 20 μg/m3 (25th: 12, 75th: 25); SO42- and elemental carbon (EC) also measured; 4 and 6 hb Lag0 -
Sullivan et al., 2005b Median age 77 yrs (57-87), 62% CVD Epi. Hrly mean outside home PM2.5: 11 μg/m3 (3-40); 1 and 4 hb Lag0 -
Vallejo et al., 2006 Mean age 27 yrs (21-35) Epi. Median personal PM2.5: 74 μg/m3 (25th: 49, 75th: 111); 30' to 210' Lag0 -
Wheeler et al., 2006 Aged 49-76 yrs, 46% CVD, 54% COPD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5, 4 h mean:: 18 μg/m3 (25th: 12, 75th: 22); 1 and 4 hb Lag0 -
Beckett et al., 2005 Mean age 35 yrs (23-52) Exp. UFP and fine Zn PM: 500 μg/m3; 2 h Lag0, 3, 6, 11, 23 h -
Devlin et al., 2003 Mean age 67 yrs (SD1) Exp. CAP < PM2.5: 41 μg/m3 (SD9); with exercise; 2 h Lag0 and 24 h -
Frampton et al., 2004 Aged 18-40 yrs, 57% asthmatics Exp. UFP: 10 or 25 μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 3.5, 15, 21, 45 h -
Gong et al., 2008 Aged 18-50 yrs, 45% asthmatics Exp. CAP~UFP: 100 μg/m3 (SD68) for 2 h with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h -
Gong et al., 2004 Mean age 36 yrs (SD11), 75% asthmatics Exp. CAP~PM10 : 157 μg/m3 (SD41) with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 hc -
Gong et al., 2004b Aged 54-85 yrs, 68% COPD Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 167 (SD27) μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h -
Peretz et al., 2008 Aged 24-48 yrs Exp. Diesel PM: 100 and 200 μg/m3 for 2 h; 2 h Lag0, 1, 4, 20 h -
Routledge et al., 2006 Aged 52-75 yrs, 50% CVD Exp. C UFP: 50 μg/m3; 1 h Lag0 and 4 h
Scharrer et al., 2007 Mean age 29 yrs (SD8) Exp. Welding fume PM 50th: 3500 μg/m3 (1000-25300); 1 h Lag 5 h -
  1. a Numbers are rounded to the nearest integer for simplification; b Exposure durations longer than 6 h also studied;
  2. Abbreviations: BC: Black carbon; C: Carbon; CAP: Concentrated ambient particles; COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; Dur.: Duration of exposure; Epi.: Epidemiological; Exp.: Experimental; hrly: Hourly; HT: Hypertensive; OC Organic carbon; PM: Fine particles; SD: Standard deviation; SDNN: Standard deviation of all the normal-to-normal intervals; UFP: Ultrafine particles -: No significant statistical association;