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Table 3 Evidence of association between sub-daily exposure to PM and vasoconstrictiona

From: Cardiovascular effects of sub-daily levels of ambient fine particles: a systematic review

Authors Subjects Design Exposure Levels Dur. Lags Vasocon- striction
Harrabi et al., 2006 Mean age 75 yrs (SD5), 46% HT, 6% MI Epi. Fixed site PM10 hrly mean: 20 μg/m3 (SD10); SO42- and OC also measured; 1 hb Lag0, 3, 5, 24 h ↓SBP at lag3 and 5 h
Brook et al., 2002 Mean age 35 yrs (SD10) Exp. CAP~PM2.5: 153 μg/m3 (SD35) + O3; 2-2.5 h Lag0 ↓BAD; -BP and FMD
Dales et al., 2007 Aged 18-50 yrs Exp. PM2.5 bus stop 1: 40 μg/m3 (SD20); PM2.5 bus stop 2: 10 μg/m3 (SD10); PM1 also measured; 2 h Lag0 ↓FMD with PM2.5 not with PM1; -BP
Frampton et al., 2004 Aged 18-40 yrs, 57% asthmatics Exp. UFP: 10 or 25 μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 3.5, 15, 21, 45 h -BP
Gong et al., 2008 Aged 18-50 yrs, 45% asthmatics Exp. CAP~UFP: 100 μg/m3 (SD68) with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h -BP
Gong et al., 2004b Aged 54-85 yrs, 68% COPD Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 167 (SD27) μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h -BP
Gong et al., 2004 Mean age 36 yrs (SD11), 75% asthmatics Exp. CAP~PM10 : 157 μg/m3 (SD41) with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h -BP
Gong et al., 2003 Aged 18-45 yrs, 50% asthmatics Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 174 μg/m3 (SD37) with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h -BPc
Mills et al., 2008 Mean age 54 yrs (SD2), 50% CVD Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 190 μg/m3 (SD37); with exercise; 2 h Lag6 to 8 h -FBF with vasodil. or not; -BP
Mills et al., 2007b Mean age 60 yrs (SD1), with prior MI Exp. Diesel PM : 300 μg/m3; with exercise; 1 h Lag6 to 8 h -FBF with vasodil. or not; -BP
Mills et al., 2005 Aged 20-38 yrs Exp. Diesel PM : 300 μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag2, 6, 24 h ↓FBF with vasodil.; -BP
Peretz et al., 2008b Aged 20-48 yrs Exp. Diesel PM: 100 and 200 μg/m3; 2 h Lag0 and 3 h ↓BAD; -FMD and BP
Routledge et al., 2006 Aged 52-75 yrs, 50% CVD Exp. C UFP: 50 μg/m3; 1 h Lag0 and 4 h -BP
Rundell et al., 2007 Mean age 21 yrs (SD2) Exp. Nb of PM1 near busy road: 144K/cm3 (SD59K); with exercise; for 30' Lag0 ↓BAD and FMD
Shah et al., 2008 Aged 18-40 yrs Exp. C UFP: 50 μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 3.5, 21, 45 h ↓FBF post ischemia at Lag3.5
Törnqvist et al., 2007 Mean age 26 yrs (18-38) Exp. Diesel PM: 300 μg/m3; with exercise; 1 h Lag 24 h ↓FBF with vasodil. at lag24; -BP
Urch et al., 2005 Aged 18-50 yrs Exp. CAP~PM2.5: 147 μg/m3 (SD27) + O3; 2 h Lag0 ↑DBP
  1. a Numbers are rounded to the nearest integer for simplification; b Exposure durations longer than 6 h also studied; c Inconsistent results were reported between population subgroups (e.g. normal and asthmatics);
  2. Abbreviations: BAD: Brachial artery diameter; BC: Black carbon; BP: Blood pressure; C: Carbon; CAP: Concentrated Ambient Particles; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DBP: diastolic BP; Dur.: Duration of exposure; Epi.: Epidemiological; Exp.: Experimental; FBF: forearm blood flow measured by plethysmography; FMD: Flow mediated diameter; HT: Hypertensive; hrly: Hourly; MI: Myocardial infarction; O3: Ozone; OC organic carbon; PM: Particulate matter; SD: Standard deviation; SBP: systolic BP; UFP: Ultrafine particles; vasodil.: Vasodilators; -: No significant statistical association;