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Table 4 Evidence of association between sub-daily exposure to PM and coagulationa

From: Cardiovascular effects of sub-daily levels of ambient fine particles: a systematic review

Authors Subjects Design Exposure Levels Dur. Lags PL F t-PA Agc
Rückerl et al., 2007 Aged 51-76 yrs, with CVD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 daily mean: 20 μg/m3 (SD15); UFP nb, PM10 also measured; 6 hb Lag0, 6, 12, 18 h ↓ with UFP lag 0 and 18 h   
Carlsten et al., 2007 Mean age 25 yrs (21-43) Exp. Diesel PM: 100 and 200 μg/m3 2 h Lag3, 6, 22 h -   
Frampton et al., 2004 Aged 18-40 yrs, 57% asthmatics Exp. UFP: 10 or 25 μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 3.5, 15, 21, 45 h - -  
Ghio et al., 2000 Mean age 26 yrs (SD1) Exp. CAP~PM2.5: 23-311 μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag18 h -  
Gong et al., 2008 Aged 18-50 yrs, 45% asthmatics Exp. CAP~UFP: 100 μg/m3 (SD68); with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h - - -
Gong et al., 2004b Aged 54-85 yrs, 68% COPD Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 167 (SD27) μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h - -  
Gong et al., 2003 Aged 18-45 yrs, 50% asthmatics Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 174 μg/m3 (SD37); with exercise; 2 h Lag0, 4, 22 h - -  
Lucking et al., 2008 Aged 21-44 yrs Exp. Diesel PM: 350 μg/m3; 2 h Lag2 and 6 h -   
Mills et al., 2008 Mean age 54 yrs (SD2), 50% CVD Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 190 μg/m3 (SD37); with exercise; 2 h Lag2, 6, 8 h ↑ at lag2   -
Mills et al., 2007b Mean age 60 yrs (SD1), with prior MI Exp. Diesel PM: 300 μg/m3; with exercise; 1 h Lag6, 24 h    ↓ at lag6
Mills et al., 2005 Aged 20-38 yrs Exp. Diesel PM: 300 μg/m3; with exercise; 1 h Lag2, 6, 24 h -   ↓ at lag6
Routledge et al., 2006 Aged 52-75 yrs, 50% CVD Exp. C UFP: 50 μg/m3; 1 h Lag4 and 24 h - -  
Salvi et al. 1999 Aged 21-28 yrs Exp. Diesel PM: 300 μg/m3; with exercise; 1 h Lag 6 h   
Scharrer et al., 2007 Mean age 29 yrs (SD8) Exp. Welding fume PM 50th: 3500 μg/m3 (1000-25300); 1 h Lag 5 h   -  
Törnqvist et al., 2007 Mean age 26 yrs (18-38) Exp. Diesel PM: 300 μg/m3; with exercise; 1 h Lag 24 h -   -
  1. a Numbers are rounded to the nearest integer for simplification; b Exposure durations longer than 6 h also studied; c Except in Gong et al., 2008, t-PA antigen was measured following infusion of vasodilators;
  2. Abbreviations: Ag: Antigen; C: Carbon; CAP: Concentrated Ambient Particles; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Dur.: Duration of exposure; Epi.: Epidemiological; Exp.: Experimental; F: Fibrinogen; MI: Myocardial infarction; PL: platelets; nb: number; PM: Particulate matter; SD: Standard deviation; t-PA Ag: tissue plasminogen activator antigen; UFP: Ultrafine particles; -: No significant statistical association;