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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (and 95% CI) of reported symptoms (current or ever wheeze) and asthma diagnosis across increasing levels of cumulative exposure to PM or NOx emissions at all roads 50, 100 and 150 m from the residence

From: Residential exposure to motor vehicle emissions and the risk of wheezing among 7-8 year-old schoolchildren: a city-wide cross-sectional study in Nicosia, Cyprus

  Unadjusted (N = 1675) Adjusted1 (N = 1461) Unadjusted (N = 1675) Adjusted1 (N = 1460) Unadjusted (N = 1671) Adjusted1 (N = 1463)
   Current wheezing Ever having wheezed Ever asthma
Cumulative PM at 50 m > 50 m, None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 50 m, Low 1.17 (0.80,1.73) 1.06 (0.66,1.70) 1.29 (0.89,1.88) 1.30 (0.83,2.04) 0.96 (0.56,1.66) 0.84 (0.45,1.57)
  < 50 m, High2 1.97 (1.23,3.16) 2.33 (1.27,1.30) 1.32 (0.83,2.09) 1.66 (0.91,3.01) 1.78 (0.97,3.25) 2.51 (1.36,4.64)
Cumulative PM at 100 m > 100 m, None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 100, Low 1.00 (0.68,1.46) 1.08 (0.72,1.63) 1.16 (0.86,1.56) 1.24 (0.89,1.72) 0.97 (0.66,1.40) 0.85 (0.56,1.29)
  < 100, High2 1.86 (1.17,2.97) 1.92 (1.06,3.46) 1.29 (0.85,1.95) 1.41 (0.94,2.38) 1.72 (1.02,2.90) 2.00 (1.11,3.51)
Cumulative PM at 150 m > 150 m, None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 150, Low 0.98 (0.64,1.50) 1.05 (0.66,1.67) 1.00 (0.72,1.38) 1.10 (0.74,1.62) 0.88 (0.58,1.33) 0.83 (0.52,1.32)
  < 150, Medium 0.98 (0.61,1.57) 1.19 (0.71,1.97) 1.02 (0.67,1.57) 1.17 (0.74,1.82) 0.88 (0.52,1.47) 0.97 (0.57,1.62)
  < 150, High2 1.58 (0.91,2.73) 1.60 (0.79,3.22) 1.58 (1.13,2.21) 1.51 (0.95,2.41) 1.29 (0.81,2.05) 1.31 (0.77,2.22)
  P-value for trend 0.20 0.16 0.05 0.10 0.67 0.61
Cumulative NOx at 50 m > 50 m, None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 50 m, Low 1.12 (0.79,1.57) 1.08 (0.64,1.54) 1.17 (0.84,1.61) 1.24 (0.84,1.85) 1.02 (0.63,1.64) 0.96 (0.58,1.59)
  < 50 m, High2 2.12 (1.26,3.58) 2.14 (1.05,4.35) 1.71 (1.07,2.73) 1.83 (0.94,3.57) 1.58 (0.86,2.87) 1.90 (0.94,3.82)
Cumulative NOx at 100 m > 100 m, None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 100, Low 1.01 (0.71,1.44) 1.11 (0.75,1.63) 1.10 (0.83,1.47) 1.19 (0.86,1.63) 0.96 (0.67,1.37) 0.85 (0.57,1.27)
  < 100, High2 1.78 (1.06,2.96) 1.76 (0.93,3.30) 1.49 (0.98,2.26) 1.61 (0.95,2.71) 1.72 (0.96,3.09) 1.89 (1.00,3.57)
Cumulative NOx at 150 m > 150 m, None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 150, Low 1.01 (0.69,1.48) 1.14 (0.75,1.71) 1.01 (0.75,1.28) 1.14 (0.81,1.61) 0.89 (0.60,1.31) 0.89 (0.58,1.37)
  < 150, Medium 0.90 (0.47,1.72) 1.12 (0.57,2.19) 0.99 (0.71,1.54) 1.09 (0.58,2.03) 0.76 (0.37,1.58) 0.84 (0.39,1.78)
  < 150, High2 1.56 (0.97,2.52) 1.44 (0.75,2.74) 1.58 (0.96,1.69) 1.47 (1.01,2.15) 1.38 (0.83,2.27) 1.27 (0.72,2.26)
  P-value for trend 0.20 0.25 0.04 0.12 0.59 0.71
  1. 1Adjusted for gender, smoking during pregnancy, co-morbidity and all other risk factors except birthweight, 2 Cut-off points for levels of exposure were defined based on the 50% (in the case of the medium category) and/or 75% (i.e. highest quartile for the high category) of the distribution of non-zero values.