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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer and residential pesticide use, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1988-1995

From: Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

Product category Cases (no.) Controls (no.) Adjusted OR (95% CI) P trend
Combined pesticide use
   Quartile 1 173 152 1.0 Reference  
   Quartile 2 110 99 1.0 0.7, 1.5  
   Quartile 3 169 143 1.1 0.8, 1.5  
   Quartile 4 153 126 1.1 0.8, 1.6 0.52
Insect or bug control
   Never use 161 151 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 569 514 1.1 0.9, 1.4  
   Once or twice 161 155 1.0 0.7, 1.4  
   3-10 times 203 188 1.1 0.8, 1.5  
   > 10 times 205 171 1.2 0.8, 1.6 0.21
Termite or carpenter ant control
   Never use 293 265 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 165 161 0.9 0.6,1.2  
   Once or twice 105 85 1.0 0.7,1.5  
   3-10 times 35 49 0.6 0.4,1.0  
   > 10 times 25 27 0.8 0.4,1.4 0.11
Mosquito control
   Never use 314 312 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 91 87 1.0 0.7, 1.5  
   Once or twice 15 18 0.9 0.5. 1.9  
   3-10 times 35 31 1.1 0.7, 1.9  
   > 10 times 41 38 1.0 0.6, 1.7 0.79
Mothball control
   Never use 73 91 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 340 312 1.2 0.8, 1.7  
   < 5 times 92 90 1.2 0.8, 1.9  
   5-10 times 62 73 0.9 0.6, 1.5  
   > 10 times 186 149 1.3 0.9, 1.9 0.29
Lawn care
   Never use 316 286 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 408 343 1.1 0.9, 1.3  
   Once or twice 43 35 1.2 0.7, 1.9  
   3-20 times 174 136 1.2 0.9, 1.6  
   > 20 times 191 172 1.0 0.7, 1.3 0.88
Outdoor and indoor plant care
   Never use 407 359 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 334 300 1.0 0.8, 1.2  
   Once or twice 33 26 1.1 0.6, 1.8  
   3-20 times 158 146 1.0 0.7, 1.3  
   > 20 times 143 128 1.0 0.7, 1.3 0.71
Insect repellent
   Never use 286 271 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 482 428 1.2 0.9, 1.5  
   Rarely 283 263 1.1 0.9, 1.5  
   Sometimes 133 115 1.2 0.9, 1.7  
   Often/Very often 66 50 1.5 1.0, 2.3 0.05
Lice control
   Never use 692 626 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 89 83 1.2 0.8, 1.6  
Flea collar for pets
   No 257 238 1.0 Reference  
   Yes 529 482 1.2 0.9, 1.5  
Flea control for pets
   Never use 465 395 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 294 286 1.0 0.8, 1.2  
   Once or twice 43 41 0.9 0.6, 1.5  
   3-10 times 101 109 0.9 0.6, 1.2  
   > 10 times 150 136 1.1 0.8, 1.4 0.95
  1. Odds ratios are adjusted for age at diagnosis/reference year, birth decade (six categories), previous breast cancer diagnosis, family history of breast cancer, age at first live or still birth (< 30, ≥ 30/nulliparous), education (five categories), study (Cape, PCE). "Combined pesticide use" product category includes frequency data for: insect or bug control, lawn care, outdoor and indoor plant care, insect repellent, flea control on pets. Product use for termite or carpenter ant control, mosquito control, and mothball control not included because they were only assessed in study participants from the 1999-2000 interviews.