Skip to main content

Table 5 Adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer and cleaning product use stratified by disease causation beliefs

From: Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

Beliefs about environmental chemicals/pollutants and breast cancer
  Contributes "a lot" Does not contribute "a lot"
Product category Cases (no.) Controls (no.) Adj. OR 95% CI P trend Cases (no.) Controls (no.) Adj. OR 95% CI P trend
Combined cleaning product use
   Quartile 1 39 55 1.0 Ref.   52 44 1.0 Ref.  
   Quartile 2 58 69 1.4 0.8, 2.4   42 38 0.9 0.5, 1.8  
   Quartile 3 71 74 1.6 0.9, 2.8   41 51 0.8 0.4, 1.4  
   Quartile 4 77 47 3.2 1.8, 5.9 0.0001 27 23 1.2 0.6, 2.6 0.96
Combined air freshener use (sprays and solids)
   Quartile 1 34 43 1.0 Ref.   40 34 1.0 Ref.  
   Quartile 2 67 71 1.3 0.7, 2.4   46 46 0.9 0.5, 1.7  
   Quartile 3 76 86 1.3 0.7, 2.2   47 52 0.8 0.4, 1.6  
   Quartile 4 69 46 2.4 1.3, 4.5 0.01 32 25 1.4 0.7, 3.0 0.53
Air freshener spray
   Never use 44 50 1.0 Ref.   46 45 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 203 196 1.3 0.8, 2.1   119 112 1.2 0.7, 2.0  
   < Once a month 50 57 1.1 0.6, 2.0   33 31 1.1 0.6, 2.2  
   Monthly 32 32 1.2 0.6, 2.3   15 9 1.9 0.7, 5.0  
   Weekly 71 62 1.5 0.8, 2.6   43 48 1.0 0.6, 2.0  
   Daily 50 45 1.4 0.8, 2.7 0.12 28 24 1.2 0.6, 2.6 0.66
Solid air freshener
   Never use 144 174 1.0 Ref.   115 114 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 102 72 1.9 1.3, 2.9   51 43 1.4 0.8, 2.3  
   < 2/year 27 28 1.3 0.7, 2.3   23 13 1.9 0.9, 4.1  
   2-6/year 58 32 2.6 1.6, 4.4   19 26 0.9 0.4, 1.8  
   ≥ 7/year 17 12 1.7 0.8, 3.9 0.0007 9 4 2.8 0.8, 10.2 0.31
Oven cleaner
   Never use 11 19 1.0 Ref.   22 14 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 236 227 1.8 0.8, 4.0   143 143 0.6 0.3, 1.2  
   < 2/year 96 86 2.0 0.9, 4.6   49 57 0.4 0.1, 1.3  
   2-6/year 112 121 1.5 0.6, 34   87 75 0.7 0.3, 1.5  
   ≥ 7/year 28 20 2.4 0.9, 6.5 0.58 7 11 0.4 0.1, 1.3 0.73
Surface cleaner
   Never use 29 36 1.0 Ref.   24 18 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 218 209 1.5 0.9,2.7   141 139 0.7 0.4,1.5  
   < Once a month 23 30 0.9 0.4, 1.9   38 30 0.9 0.4, 2.0  
   Monthly 39 36 1.5 0.7, 3.1   18 21 0.6 0.2, 1.4  
   Weekly 120 103 1.7 1.0, 3.0   66 68 0.7 0.3, 1.5  
   Daily 36 40 1.7 0.8, 3.6 0.02 19 20 0.8 0.3, 2.1 0.45
Mold/mildew control
   Never use 166 197 1.0 Ref.   130 125 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 80 49 2.1 1.4, 3.3   34 32 1.1 0.6, 2.0  
Mold/mildew control with bleach
   Never use 179 202 1.0 Ref.   141 132 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 67 44 1.8 1.2, 2.9   23 24 1.0 0.5, 2.0  
   < Once a month 33 25 1.4 0.8, 2.5   14 13 1.1 0.5, 2.4  
   Monthly 10 7 1.8 0.6, 5.1   4 4 1.1 0.3, 4.7  
   ≥ Weekly 24 12 3.2 1.4, 7.1 0.002 5 7 0.8 0.2, 2.7 0.83
  1. Odds ratios are adjusted for age at diagnosis/reference year, birth decade (six categories), previous breast cancer diagnosis, family history of breast cancer, age at first live or still birth (< 30, ≥ 30/nulliparous), education (five categories). "Combined cleaning product use" product category combines frequency of use across five product categories: air freshener spray, solid air freshener, oven cleaner, surface cleaner, and mold/mildew control with bleach.