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Table 6 Adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer and residential pesticide use stratified by disease causation beliefs

From: Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

Beliefs about environmental chemicals/pollutants and breast cancer
  Contributes "a lot" Does not contribute "a lot"
Product category Cases (no.) Controls (no.) Adj. OR 95% CI Ptrend Cases (no.) Controls (no.) Adj. OR 95% CI Ptrend
Combined pesticide use
   Quartile 1 91 87 1.0 Ref.   82 65 1.0 Ref.  
   Quartile 2 66 47 1.5 0.9, 2.5   44 52 0.7 0.4, 1.1  
   Quartile 3 104 89 1.2 0.8, 1.9   65 54 1.0 0.6, 1.7  
   Quartile 4 106 75 1.5 1.0, 2.4 0.16 47 51 0.7 0.4, 1.3 0.53
Insect or bug control
   Never use 81 78 1.0 Ref.   80 73 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 367 305 1.2 0.9, 1.8   202 209 0.9 0.6, 1.3  
   Once or twice 105 90 1.1 0.7, 1.8   56 65 0.8 0.5, 1.3  
   3-10 times 130 117 1.1 0.8, 1.7   73 71 1.0 0.6, 1.6  
   > 10 times 132 98 1.4 0.9, 2.1 0.12 73 73 0.9 0.6, 1.4 0.86
Termites/carpenter ants
   Never use 161 146 1.0 Ref   132 119 1.0 Ref  
   Any use 112 102 1.0 0.7, 1.4   53 59 0.7 0.4, 1.1  
   Once or twice 68 54 1.1 0.7, 1.7   37 31 1.0 0.5, 1.7  
   3-10 times 28 30 0.9 0.5, 1.6   7 19 0.2 0.1, 0.6  
   > 10 times 16 18 0.8 0.4, 1.7 0.55 9 9 0.7 0.3, 2.1 0.06
Mosquito control
   Never use 176 186 1.0 Ref.   138 126 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 65 58 1.1 0.7, 1.7   26 29 0.8 0.4, 1.4  
   Once or twice 10 11 1.2 0.7, 2.2   5 7 0.7 0.2, 2.3  
   3-10 times 23 22 1.1 0.6, 2.1   12 9 1.2 0.5, 3.2  
   > 10 times 32 25 1.2 0.7, 2.2 0.47 9 13 0.5 0.2, 1.4 0.33
Mothball control
   Never use 40 56 1.0 Ref.   33 35 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 207 190 1.3 0.8, 2.1   133 122 1.0 0.6,1.8  
   < 5 times 50 55 1.2 0.7, 2.1   42 35 1.3 0.7, 2.7  
   5-10 times 40 53 1.0 0.5, 1.8   22 20 0.9 0.4, 2.0  
   > 10 times 117 82 1.6 1.0, 2.8 0.06 69 67 0.9 0.5, 1.7 0.41
Lawn care
   Never use 190 169 1.0 Ref.   126 117 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 250 196 1.1 0.8,1.5   158 147 1.1 0.8,1.5  
   Once or twice 24 21 1.0 0.5, 2.0   19 14 1.4 0.7, 3.0  
   3-20 times 115 83 1.2 0.8, 1.7   59 53 1.1 0.7, 1.8  
   > 20 times 111 92 1.0 0.7, 1.5 0.58 80 80 1.0 0.6, 1.5 0.98
Outdoor and indoor plant care
   Never use 235 198 1.0 Ref.   172 161 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 214 173 1.0 0.8, 1.4   120 127 0.8 0.6, 1.2  
   Once or twice 18 12 1.2 0.5, 2.6   15 14 0.9 0.4, 2.0  
   3-20 times 104 86 1.0 0.7, 1.5   54 60 0.8 0.5, 1.2  
   > 20 times 92 75 1.0 0.7, 1.4 0.99 51 53 0.9 0.5, 1.4 0.39
Insect repellent
   Never use 153 134 1.0 Ref.   133 137 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 312 261 1.2 0.9, 1.6   170 167 1.2 0.8, 1.7  
   Rarely 179 149 1.2 0.8, 1.6   104 114 1.1 0.7, 1.6  
   Sometimes 85 85 1.0 0.6, 1.5   48 30 1.9 1.1, 3.4  
   Often/Very often 48 27 2.0 1.1, 3.4 0.12 18 23 0.8 0.4, 1.6 0.45
Lice control
   Never use 414 344 1.0 Ref.   278 282 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 59 58 1.1 0.7, 1.7   30 25 1.4 0.8, 2.5  
Flea collar for pets
   No 132 122 1.0 Ref.   125 116 1.0 Ref.  
   Yes 344 290 1.3 0.9, 1.8   185 192 1.0 0.7, 1.4  
Flea control for pets
   Never use 256 214 1.0 Ref.   209 181 1.0 Ref.  
   Any use 196 177 1.1 0.8, 1.4   98 109 0.8 0.5,1.1  
   Once or twice 23 23 0.9 0.5, 1.6   20 18 1.0 0.5, 2.1  
   3-10 times 63 74 0.8 0.5, 1.2   38 35 0.9 0.6, 1.6  
   > 10 times 110 80 1.4 0.9, 2.0 0.27 40 56 0.6 0.4, 1.0 0.07
  1. Odds ratios are adjusted for age at diagnosis/reference year, birth decade (six categories), previous breast cancer diagnosis, family history of breast cancer, age at first live or still birth (< 30, ≥ 30/nulliparous), education (five categories), study (Cape, PCE). "Combined pesticide use" product category includes frequency data for: insect or bug control, lawn care, outdoor and indoor plant care, insect repellent, flea control on pets. Product use for termite or carpenter ant control, mosquito control, and mothball control not included because they were only assessed in study participants from the 1999-2000 interviews.