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Table 4 Effects of trimester-specific pollutant exposures on birth weight, in grams (95% confidence interval).

From: Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

  first trimesteraexposure second trimesteraexposure third trimesteraexposure
CO, per ppm    
at 3 km -2.2 (-5.0, 0.7) 5.3 (1.7, 8.8) -6.7 (-9.8, -3.6)
at 5 km -2.4 (-4.4, -0.4) 3.2 (0.8, 5.6) -7.7 (-9.8, -5.6)
at 10 km -1.9 (-3.3, -0.6) 2.5 (0.9, 4.2) -7.0 (-8.4, -5.5)
NO2, per pphm    
at 3 km -2.4 (-4.4, -0.5) 1.8 (-0.8, 4.3) -8.1 (-10.2,-6.1)
at 5 km -3.1 (-4.4, -1.8) 0.9 (-0.8, 2.5) -7.9 (-9.2, -6.5)
at 10 km -3.0 (-3.9, -2.1) 0.6 (-0.6, 1.7) -7.0 (-7.9, -6.0)
O3, per pphm    
at 3 km -2.9 (-4.4, -1.5) -3.1 (-4.6, -1.6) -3.0 (-4.4, -1.5)
at 5 km -2.7 (-3.7, -1.7) -2.2 (-3.2, -1.1) -2.4 (-3.4, -1.4)
at 10 km -2.1 (-2.9, -1.4) -2.3 (-3.1, -1.5) -1.3 (-2.1, -0.6)
SO2, per ppb    
at 3 km 0.8 (-1.8, 3.3) 0.4 (-2.7, 3.5) 0.6 (-1.9, 3.2)
at 5 km 1.8 (0.3, 3.4) 0.1 (-1.7, 2.0) 0.4 (-1.1, 2.0)
at 10 km 2.5 (1.6, 3.4) -0.1 (-1.1, 0.9) 0.7 (-0.2, 1.5)
PM10, per 10 μ g/m3    
at 3 km -2.6 (-4.3, -0.9) -0.3 (-2.2, 1.6) -3.1 (-4.8, -1.3)
at 5 km -2.7 (-3.8, -1.7) -1.1 (-2.3, 0.1) -4.1 (-5.2, -3.0)
at 10 km -2.3 (-3.0, -1.6) -1.5 (-2.3, -0.7) -3.7 (-4.4, -3.0)
PM2.5, per 10 μ g/m3    
at 3 km -6.9 (-9.6, -4.2) -0.5 (-3.6, 2.6) -2.4 (-5.2, 0.4)
at 5 km -6.1 (-7.8, -4.3) -2.2 (-4.2, -0.3) -3.6 (-5.5, -1.8)
at 10 km -6.0 (-7.3, -4.8) -2.6 (-4.0, -1.3) -4.7 (-6.0, -3.5)
coarse PM, per 10 μ g/m3    
at 3 km -3.5 (-7.1, 0.0) 0.3 (-3.5, 4.1) -6.7 (-10.1,-3.3)
at 5 km -4.2 (-6.3, -2.0) -1.2 (-3.6, 1.1) -5.0 (-7.1, -2.9)
at 10 km -3.4 (-4.9, -2.0) -1.0 (-2.5, 0.5) -5.1 (-6.4, -3.8)
  1. afirst trimester: first 16 weeks after last menstrual period, second trimester: weeks 17 to 28, third trimester: week 29 to delivery.
  2. Models adjusted for infant sex, gestational age, season and year of birth, parity, maternal factors (race/ethnicity, educational attainment, marital status, access to prenatal care, birth place, age) and neighborhood SES measures (poverty rate, home ownership, educational attainment, unemployment rate)