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Table 1 A profile of 37 human volunteer studies in the peer-reviewed literature

From: The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

Authors Study type* Compound/Chemical Group Route Statistical Power Details on Ethics Committee Approval Higher Reference
1. Bartels et al, 1998 [37] A Phenols Dermal n.a. Yes No
2. Buchholz et al, 1999 [38] A Atrazine Dermal Weak Yes No
3. Cnubben et al, 2002 [39]   Phenols Dermal and Intravenous n.a. Yes No
4. Dick et al, 1997 [46] A OC Dermal Acceptable Yes No
5. DuBois and Mangun, 1947 [47] T OP Oral Weak Not provided No
6. Edson et al, 1967 [48] T OP Oral Acceptable Not provided No
7. Flannigan et al, 1985 [49] T Permethrin Dermal Acceptable Yes No
8. Griffin et al, 1999 [50] A OP Oral and Dermal Weak Yes No
9. Guthrie et al, 1976 [51] A, O OP Field study Weak Not provided No
10. Hayes et al, 1964 [52] A, T, E OP Dermal and Ingestion n.a. Not provided No
11. Kezic et, 1996 [53] A Dichloro-propene Dermal n.a. Yes No
12. Krieger et al, 1993 [54] A Captan Dermal Weak Not provided No
13. Meaklim et al, 2003 [55] A, T OP Oral Weak Yes Yes
14. Meuling et al 2005 [56] A OP Dermal Weak Yes No
15. Moeller et al, 1962 [57] T OP Oral Acceptable Not provided No
16. Moody et al 1992 [58] A, E, O Phenoxy herbicides Oral Weak Yes No
17. Moody et al, 1990 [59] A Phenoxy Herbicides Dermal Weak Yes No
18. Nolan et al, 1984a [60] A, T OP Oral and Dermal Weak Not provided No
19. Nolan et al, 1984b [61] A OP Oral and Dermal Acceptable Yes No
20. Ramsey et al 1992 [45] A Fluazifop-butyl Herbicide Dermal Acceptable Yes No
21. Rao et al, 1979 [62] T OP Ingestion Weak Not provided No
22. Rider et al, 1975 [63] T OP Oral Acceptable Not provided Yes
23. Roy et al, 2006 [40] A, T, E N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and permethrin Dermal Weak Yes No
24. Sanderson and Edson, 1964 [64] T OP Oral Weak Not provided No
25. Sauerhoff et al, 1977 [65] A Phenoxy Herbicide Oral n.a. Not provided No
26. Selim et al, 1999 [66] A 2,4-D Oral Weak Not provided Partly
27. Selim et al, 1995 [67] A Piperonyl butoxide Dermal Weak Yes No
28. Timchalk et al, 1998 [68] A Phenols Dermal Weak Yes No
29. Verberk et al, 1977 [69] T OP Oral Acceptable Not provided No
30. Verberk, 1977 [70] T OP Oral Acceptable Not provided No
31. Vessell et al, 1975 [71] A, E, O Warfarin (rodenticide) Oral Acceptable Not provided No
32. Wester et al, 1993 [72] A OP Dermal Acceptable Not provided No
33. Wester et al, 1994 [73] A Pyrethrin and piperonyl butoxide Dermal Weak Yes No
34. Wilks et al. 1993 [41] A Herbicide Oral Acceptable Yes No
35. Williams et al, 2004 [44] A OP Dermal Acceptable Yes No
36. Woollen et al, 1991 [43] A Fluazifop-butyl herbicide Oral Weak Yes No
37. Woollen et al, 1992 [42] A Pyrethroid Insecticide Oral and Dermal Acceptable Yes No
  1. * A = ADME study; T = Toxicity endpoint; E = Exposure study; O = Other