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Table 2 Agricultural works and farming descriptions of the farmers in the two study populations 1998 and 2006

From: Pesticide use and opportunities of exposure among farmers and their families: cross-sectional studies 1998-2006 from Hebron governorate, occupied Palestinian territory

  1998 (n = 61 couples) 2006 (n = 250 male farmers)
  Husbands Wives   
Characteristics No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Years working in agriculture       
0-14 14 (23.0) 32 (53.0) 40 (16.0)
15-29 19 (31.0) 20 (33.0) 96 (38.4)
>29 28 (46.0) 9 (15.0) 114 (45.6)
Mean (SD) 26 (13.0) 16 (11.3) 29 (14.0)
Farming tasks       
Farming/cultivating 58 (95.1) 33 (54.0) 250 (100.0)
Pruning 60 (98.0) 16 (26.0) 247 (98.8)
Applying pesticides 61 (100.0) 51 (84.0) 247 (98.8)
Harvesting 61 (100.0) 56 (92.0) 250 (100.0)
Irrigating 35 (57.4) 25 (41.0) 247 (98.8)
Types of crops grown in the farm       
Grapes 60 (98.0)    250 (100.0)
Plums 57 (94.0)    209 (84.0)
Apples 19 (21.0)    47 (19.0)
Vegetables 27 (44.0)    198 (79.0)
Others 18 (31.0)    119 (48.0)
Years using pesticides       
1-10 11 (18.0)    53 (21.2)
11-20 19 (31.0)    110 (44.0)
>20 31 (51.0)    87 (35.0)
Mean (SD) 24 (12.0)    21 (11.0)
Total pesticide units applied annually       
≤ 40 units 26 (42.6)    239 (95.6)
>40 units 35 (57.4)    11 (4.4)
Mean (SD) 20.7 (20.8)    14.2 (20.1)
Number of annual pesticide applications       
≤ 8 times 51 (83.6)    214 (85.6)
>8 times 10 (16.4)    36 (14.4)
Total hours in applying pesticides/year a       
1-40 hours 20 (33.0)    99 (39.6)
41-80 hours 25 (41.0)    66 (26.4)
>80 hours 16 (26.0)    85 (34.0)
Mean (SD) 66 (39.0)    89 (103.0)
Application equipment       
Backpack sprayer 3 (5.0)    5 (2.0)
Open tractor 58 (95.0)    245 (98.0)
  1. aThe average working hours in applying pesticides was 8-72 hours/year for 93.5% of 1998 farmers' wives.