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Table 3 Description of risk factors related to head circumference at birth and SHC status (n = 3159)

From: Impact on fetal growth of prenatal exposure to pesticides due to agricultural activities: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France

  Head circumference (cm) SHC (n = 102)
  Mean (95% CI) N OR (95% CI)
All (std) 34.6 (1.5)   
Child's sex    
   Male 34.9 (34.8-35.0)** 55 Ref
   Female 34.4 (34.2-34.4) 47 0.9 (0.6-1.3)
   Missing   0  
Level of urbanization    
   Urban 34.6 (34.6-34.7) 16 Ref
   Rural 34.7 (34.6-34.8) 86 1.4 (0.8-2.4)
Districts of inclusion    
   Ille-et-Vilaine 34.6 (34.6-34.7) 69 Ref
   Côtes d'Armor - Finistère 34.6 (34.6-34.7) 33 0.9 (0.6-1.4)
Year of inclusion    
   2002 34.7 (34.5-34.8) 16 1.4 (0.7-2.5)
   2003 34.6 (34.5-34.7) 37 Ref
   2004 34.6 (34.5-34.7) 36 1.0 (0.6-1.6)
   2005 - beginning 2006 34.6 (34.5-34.8) 13 0.9 (0.5-1.7)
Season in early pregnancy    
   Spring 34.7 (34.5-34.8) 23 Ref
   Summer 34.6 (34.5-34.7) 30 1.1 (0.6-2.0)
   Fall 34.6 (34.5-34.7) 22 1.0 (0.5-1.8)
   Winter 34.7 (34.6-34.8) 27 1.2 (0.7-2.1)
Maternal age at inclusion (years)    
   < 25 34.5 (34.3-34.6)* 13 1.3 (0.7-2.4)
   25-29 34.7 (34.6-34.7) 38 Ref
   30-34 34.6 (34.5-34.7) 46 1.4 (0.9-2.1)
   ≥ 35 34.7 (34.6-34.9) 5 0.4 (0.1-0.9)
BMI before pregnancy (kg/m 2 )    
   < 18.5 34.2 (34.0-34.4)** 14 1.9 (1.1-3.5)
   18.5-25 34.6 (34.5-34.7) 76 Ref
   25-30 34.8 (34.7-35.0) 9 0.7 (0.3-1.4)
   ≥ 30 35.1 (34.9-35.3) 3 0.6 (0.2-1.8)
   Missing   0  
Maternal educational level    
   Primary education 34.5 (34.4-34.6) 15 1.0 (0.6-1.7)
   Some secondary education 34.7 (34.5-34.8) 20 0.8 (0.4-1.3)
   High school completed or higher 34.6 (34.6-34.7) 67 Ref
   Missing   0  
Maternal tobacco status in early pregnancy    
   Non smoker 34.7 (34.6-34.7)** 66 Ref
   Former smoker 34.7 (34.6-34.9) 14 1.1 (0.6-1.9)
   Smoker 34.4 (34.2-34.5) 22 1.7 (1.1-2.9)
   Missing   0  
Maternal alcohol consumption in early pregnancy    
   Never/occasionally 34.6 (34.6-34.7) 91 Ref
   ≤ 1 drink/day 34.7 (34.6-34.9) 7 0.5 (0.2-1.1)
   > 1 drink/day 34.8 (34.4-35.2) 3 1.6 (0.5-5.3)
   Missing   1  
Parity    
   0 34.5 (34.4-34.6)** 55 Ref
   1 34.7 (34.6-34.8) 39 0.8 (0.5-1.3)
   ≥ 2 34.8 (34.7-34.9) 8 0.3 (0.2-0.74)
   Missing   0  
Marital status    
   Couple 34.6 (34.6-34.7) 100 Ref
   Single 34.8 (34.4-35.1) 2 - a
   Missing   0  
Gestational or preexisting diabetes    
   No 34.6 (34.6-34.7) 97 Ref
   Yes 34.6 (34.3-34.9) 3 0.8 (0.2-2.5)
   Missing   2  
High blood pressure during pregnancy    
   No 34.7 (34.6-34.7)** 95 Ref
   Yes 34.1 (33.8-34.3) 6 1.1 (0.5-2.5)
   Missing   1  
Cesarean delivery    
   No 34.6 (34.5-34.7)** 88 Ref
   Yes 34.8 (34.7-34.9) 11 0.6 (0.3-1.1)
   Missing   3  
  1. a: No OR because too few cases (n < 3).
  2. * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05