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Table 5 Relation between agricultural activities and head circumference at birth and SHC status (n = 3159)

From: Impact on fetal growth of prenatal exposure to pesticides due to agricultural activities: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France

    Head circumference (cm)a SHC (n = 102)b
Variable N Number of municipalities Mean (95% CI) P-trend Control Case OR (95% CI) P-trend
Level of urbanization        
   Urban 660 7 34.9 (34.7-35.1) 0.04 627 16 Ref 0.06
   Rural 2499 529 34.8 (34.6-35.0)   2374 86 1.8 (0.9-3.1)  
In rural municipalities
Percentage of area used agriculturally        
   Low 1039 177 35.0(34.7-35.1) 0.36 986 39 Ref 0.35
   Medium 817 174 34.9 (34.7-35.1)   772 31 1.1 (0.6-1.8)  
   High 643 178 34.9 (34.7-35.0)   616 16 0.7 (0.3-1.2)  
Percentage of area used for corn        
   Low 990 183 35.0 (34.7-35.1) 0.38 939 35 Ref 0.94
   Medium 816 172 34.9 (34.7-35.1)   777 29 1.1 (0.6-1.8)  
   High 693 174 34.9 (34.7-35.0)   658 22 1.0 (0.5-1.7)  
Percentage of area used for wheat        
   Low 769 186 35.0 (34.8-35.1) 0.10 740 21 Ref 0.17
   Medium 842 172 35.0 (34.7-35.1)   794 33 1.6 (0.8-2.7)  
   High 888 171 34.9 (34.7-35.0)   840 32 1.5 (0.8-2.7)  
Colza crop         
   No 387 95 35.0 (34.8-35.2) 0.14 372 8 Ref 0.13
   Yes 2112 434 34.9 (34.7-35.0)   2002 78 1.8 (0.8-3.7)  
Pea crop         
   No 962 273 35.1 (34.9-35.2) 0.0002 927 20 Ref 0.004
   Yes 1537 256 34.9 (34.6-35.0)   1447 66 2.2 (1.2-3.6)  
Potato crop         
   No 1340 282 35.0 (34.7-35.1) 0.38 1274 40 Ref 0.07
   Yes 1159 247 34.9 (34.7-35.0)   1100 46 1.5 (0.9-2.4)  
Vegetable crop         
   No 904 211 35.0 (34.8-35.1) 0.12 860 27 Ref 0.40
   Yes 1595 318 34.9 (34.7-35.0)   1514 59 1.2 (0.7-1.9)  
  1. a: Models adjusted for maternal tobacco status and alcohol consumption at inclusion, parity, child's sex, cesarean delivery, gestational age, gestational age squared, pre-pregnancy BMI and height of mother. In addition, for level of urbanization, model adjusted for high blood pressure and season and without maternal alcohol consumption. District of residence and season included as additional adjustment for pea crop; b: Models adjusted for maternal age at inclusion, maternal tobacco status, parity, cesarean delivery, pre-pregnancy BMI and height of mother. Maternal alcohol consumption included as additional adjustment for the level of urbanization and year of inclusion for potato crop