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Table 3 Adjusted means ± SE of younger and older allotment gardeners and neighbors, with test statistics.

From: Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

  Allotment
gardeners
Neighbors Main effect
allotment
Main effect
age
Interaction age × allotment
Dependent measure [range] Adj. Mean
± SE
Adj. Mean
± SE
F p F p F p
Health         
Composite z-score    4.67 < .04 1.68 .2 10.83 < .01
   < 62 years -0.06 ± .1 0.06 ± .1       
   ≥ 62 years 0.15 ± .08 -0.45 ± .15       
Perceived gen. health [1-5]    .84 .36 0.41 .53 2.91 .09
   < 62 years 3.24 ± .11 3.34 ± .12       
   ≥ 62 years 3.37 ± .1 3.04 ± .17       
Physical constraints [1-3]    3.26 .07 15.7 < .001 11.33 < .01
   < 62 years 1.23 ± .04 1.15 ± .05       
   ≥ 62 years 1.27 ± .04 1.53 ± .07*       
Health complaints [0-37]    4.01 < .05 0.38 .54 11.07 < .01
   < 62 years 3.38 ± .3 2.93 ± .32       
   ≥ 62 years 2.04 ± .26* 3.83 ± .45       
Chronic illnesses [0-5]    0.4 .53 0.17 .68 4.4 < .04
   < 62 years 0.64 ± .1 0.48 ± .11       
   ≥ 62 years 0.45 ± .09 0.76 ± .15       
GP consults [0-6]    5.4 < .03 0.07 .79 1.7 .19
   < 62 years 0.69 ± .15 0.87 ± .17       
   ≥ 62 years 0.52 ± .13 1.14 ± .23       
Well-being         
Composite z-score    5.12 < .03 3.94 < .05 12.04 < .01
   < 62 years -0.24 ± .09 -0.12 ± .1       
   ≥ 62 years 0.32 ± .08* -0.26 ± .14       
Stress [1-6]    0.18 .67 21.13 < .001 6.47 < .02
   < 62 years 3.2 ± .14 2.87 ± .15       
   ≥ 62 years 2.05 ± .12* 2.52 ± .21       
Life satisfaction [1-3]    7.68 < .01 1.15 .29 3.54 < .06
   < 62 years 2.23 ± .06 2.17 ± .07       
   ≥ 62 years 2.29 ± .06 1.96 ± .09       
Contacts with friends [1-12]    0.49 .49 1.94 .17 5.87 < .02
   < 62 years 6.14 ± .43 7.0 ± .47       
   ≥ 62 years 8.07 ± .38* 6.2 ± .66       
Loneliness [0-2]    3.85 .05 0.59 .44 5.48 < .02
   < 62 years 0.66 ± .11 0.62 ± .12       
   ≥ 62 years 0.28 ± .09* 0.8 ± .16       
Physical activity         
Physical activity in summer [days p.w.]    14.72 < .001 0.13 .72 0.59 .44
   < 62 years 5.61 ± .16 5.07 ± .17       
   ≥ 62 years 5.82 ± .14 5.0 ± .24       
  1. Note. Means are adjusted for income, education level, gender, life events, physical activity in winter, and having a garden at home. Means printed in bold differ per row at p < .05; Means of older respondents indicated with * differ per column from means of younger respondents within the same group at p < .05. See Table 1 for sample sizes. Df = 1, 174 for all tests.