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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analyses of chronic respiratory symptoms/diseases and diseases in all 11-study communities located 1-2 km and ≥5 km * from mine dumps in Gauteng and North West provinces, South Africa during November-December 2012

From: Chronic respiratory disease among the elderly in South Africa: any association with proximity to mine dumps?

Chronic respiratory symptoms/diseases Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Asthmaa 1.49 (1.17 – 1.90) 0.001 1.57 (1.20 – 2.05) 0.001
Chronic bronchitisb 1.92 (1.44 – 2.57) <0.001 1.74 (1.26 – 2.39) 0.001
Chronic coughc 1.77 (1.43 – 2.20) <0.001 2.02 (1.58 – 2.57) <0.001
Emphysemad 1.72 (1.12 – 2.63) 0.013 1.75 (1.11 – 2.77) 0.016
Pneumoniae 1.25 (1.01 – 1.58) 0.018 1.38 (1.07 – 1.77) 0.014
Wheezef 1.96 (1.65 – 2.32) <0.001 2.01 (1.73 – 2.54) <0.001
  1. *Communities located ≥5 km (unexposed) from mine dumps used as reference category.
  2. a-f:Models adjusted for sex, age, population group, smoking habits, occupational exposure history to dust/chemical fumes and main residential heating/cooking fuel type.