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Table 1 Characteristics of cases of myelomeningocele and controls in Bangladesh (mean ± SD, except where noted)

From: Arsenic is associated with reduced effect of folic acid in myelomeningocele prevention: a case control study in Bangladesh

Characteristic Controls (n = 55) Cases (n = 57) p Value
Age (months) 8.0 ± 4.9 5.9 ± 5.3 0.38
Male [n (%)] 32 (58) 34 (60) 0.87
Mother’s age at delivery (years) 23.1 ± 4.1 25.2 ± 5.4 0.02
Father’s age at delivery (years) 31.5 ± 5.4 32.5 ± 6.8 0.38
Reported prenatal folic acid use [n(%)] 39 (71) 28 (49) 0.02
First born 25 (46) 23 (40) 0.56
Cesarian section [n(%)] 24 (44) 23 (40) 0.72
Birth site    0.15
Hospital 23 (22) 14 (25)  
Birth center/clinic 11 (20) 15 (26)  
Home 24 (44) 28 (49)  
Reported any ultrasound during pregnancy [n(%)] 50 (91) 48 (92) 0.19
Plasma folate concentration (nmol/L) 10.6 ± 14.7 10.5 ± 13.8 0.97
Level of neural tube defect    
Lumbar [n (%)]   49 (86)  
Cervical [n (%)]   8 (14)