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Table 2 Distribution of selected characteristics of subjects and parents by PCE exposure status

From: Long-term health effects of early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Prenatal and early childhood exposure Unexposed
(N = 831) (N = 547)
n % n %
Current age (n, mean, sd) 831 29.2 (3.6) 547 29.6 (3.8)
Gender     
  Male 331 39.8 216 39.5
  Female 500 60.2 331 60.5
% White race 818 98.4 539 98.5
Current educational level     
  High school graduate or less 128 15.4 67 12.2
  Some college 192 23.1 144 26.3
  Four year college grad or higher 510 61.4 335 61.2
  Missing 1 0.1 1 0.2
Currently employed     
  Yes 719 86.5 487 89.0
  No 92 11.1 54 9.9
  Missing 20 2.4 6 1.1
Current marital status     
  Single 272 32.7 157 28.7
  Married or cohabitating 536 64.5 371 67.8
  Other 19 2.3 12 2.2
  Missing 4 0.5 7 1.3
Ever had solvent-exposed job     
  Yes 123 14.8 71 13.0
  No 687 82.7 461 84.3
  Missing 21 2.5 15 2.7
Ever had solvent-exposed hobby     
  Yes 700 84.2 462 84.5
  No 124 14.9 79 14.4
  Missing 7 0.8 6 1.1
Cigarette smoking history     
  Current 194 23.3 104 19.0
  Former 180 21.7 134 24.5
  Never 451 54.3 308 56.3
  Missing 6 0.7 1 0.2
Current alcoholic beverage consumption     
  >8 days per month 256 30.8 181 33.1
  <= 8 days per month 413 49.7 255 46.6
  Non-drinker 149 17.9 108 19.7
  Missing 13 1.6 3 0.5
Current majora drug use     
  Yes 289 34.8 162 29.6
  No 530 63.8 380 69.5
  Missing 12 1.4 5 0.9
Mother’s ageb (n, mean (sd)) 831 27.2 (4.7) 547 27.5 (4.4)
Father’s ageb (n, mean (sd)) 831 29.8 (5.7) 547 29.8 (5.3)
Mother’s educational levelb     
  High school graduate or less 327 39.4 178 32.5
  Some college 243 29.2 188 34.4
  Four year college grad or higher 260 31.3 180 32.9
  Missing 1 0.1 1 0.2
Father’s occupationb     
  White collar 420 50.5 257 47.0
  Blue collar 275 33.1 170 31.1
  Other 126 15.2 112 20.5
  Missing 10 1.2 8 1.5
Mother received prenatal careb     
  Yes 794 95.5 520 95.1
  No 4 0.5 0 0.0
  Missing 33 4.0 27 4.9
Mother smoked cigarettesb     
  Yes 182 21.9 113 20.7
  No 483 58.1 330 60.3
  Missing 166 20.0 104 19.0
Mother drank alcoholic beveragesb     
  Yes 302 36.3 201 36.7
  No 361 43.4 242 44.2
  Missing 168 20.2 104 19.0
Mother had medical and obstetrical complicationsb     
  Yes 122 14.7 108 19.7
  No 536 64.5 331 60.5
  Missing 173 20.8 108 19.7
Mother had occupational exposure to solvents     
  Yes 76 9.1 51 9.3
  No 573 69.0 381 69.7
  Missing 182 21.9 115 21.0
Subject’s birth weight (n, mean, (sd)) 823 3,443 (506) 499 3,414 (534)
Subject’s gestational age (n, mean, (sd)) 790 40.1 (2.5) 516 39.9 (2.4)
Family history of cancer 225 27.1 141 25.8
Family history of epilepsy or seizure disorder 39 4.7 23 4.2
Family history of rheumatoid arthritis 64 7.7 41 7.5
Family history of blindness 11 1.3 6 1.1
Family history of color blindness 64 7.7 45 8.2
Family history of dry eyes 60 7.2 39 7.1
Family history of correctablec vision impairment 786 94.6 514 94.0
  1. aMajor drugs include inhalants, cocaine, crack, psychedelics, hallucinogens, club drugs, designer drugs, heroin, and Ritalin without a prescription.
  2. bAt subject’s birth or during subject’s gestation.
  3. cCorrectable with eyeglasses or contact lenses.