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Table 3 Prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene and the risk of chronic health conditions

From: Long-term health effects of early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

Health outcome Exposure % Yes (n/N) Crude GEE Adjusted GEE
  Category/   Risk ratio Risk ratio
  Percentile   (95% CI) (95% CI)
Cancer Any 2.8 (23/828) 1.9 (0.9, 4.2) 1.8 (0.8, 4.0)
  > = 50th 2.9 (12/415) 2.0 (0.8, 4.8) 1.7 (0.7, 4.5)
  >0- < 50th 2.7 (11/413) 1.8 (0.7, 4.5) 1.9 (0.7, 4.8)
  None 1.5 (8/545) Reference Reference
Diabetes Any 1.2 (10/828) 0.9 (0.4, 2.5) 1.0 (0.4, 2.6)
  > = 50th 1.2 (5/415) 0.9 (0.3, 2.9) 0.9 (0.3, 2.7)
  >0- < 50th 1.2 (5/413) 0.9 (0.3, 2.9) 1.1 (0.3, 4.2)
  None 1.3 (7/544) Reference Reference
Hypertension Any 8.5 (70/824) 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) 1.2 (0.8, 1.8)
  > = 50th 8.2 (34/414) 1.2(0.8, 1.8) 1.1 (0.7, 1.7)
  >0- < 50th 8.8 (36/410) 1.3 (0.8, 1.9) 1.4 (0.9, 2.2)
  None 7.0 (38/543) Reference Reference
Cardiovascular Disease Any 0.6 (5/825) 0.4 (0.1, 1.2) 1.5 (0.6, 3.6)
  > = 50th 0.5 (2/414) ----- -----
  >0- < 50th 0.7 (3/411) ----- -----
  None 1.5 (8/541) Reference Reference
Epilepsy Any 1.9 (16/826) 1.5 (0.6, 3.6) 1.5 (0.6, 3.6)
  > = 50th 2.2 (9/415) 1.7 (0.6, 4.5) 1.8 (0.7, 4.6)
  >0- < 50th 1.7 (7/411) 1.3 (0.5, 3.7) 1.2 (0.4, 3.5)
  None 1.3 (7/543) Reference Reference
Obesity Any 24.7 (138/558) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2)
  > = 50th 26.0 (71/273) 1.0 (0.7, 1.3) 1.0 (0.7, 1.3)
  >0- < 50th 23.5 (67/285) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2)
  None 26.7 (92/344) Reference Reference
Color blindness Any 1.4 (11/779) 0.6 (0.3, 1.3) 0.6 (0.3, 1.3)
  > = 50th 1.0 (4/386) ----- -----
  >0- < 50th 1.8 (7/393) 0.7 (0.3, 1.8) 0.8 (0.3, 2.2)
  None 2.5 (13/528) Reference Reference
Near sightedness Any 22.1 (171/775) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
  > = 50th 21.6 (83/385) 1.0 (0.7, 1.2) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2)
  >0- < 50th 22.6 (88/390) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
  None 22.6 (118/523) Reference Reference
Far sightedness Any 55.6 (429/771) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)
  > = 50th 56.4 (215/381) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 1.1)
  >0- < 50th 54.9 (214/390) 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)
  None 58.3 (307/527) Reference Reference
Dry eyes Any 8.4 (65/775) 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) 1.2 (0.8, 1.8)
  > = 50th 8.8 (34/386) 1.3 (0.8, 2.0) 1.2 (0.8, 1.9)
  >0- < 50th 8.0 (31/389) 1.1 (0.7, 1.8) 1.3 (0.8, 2.0)
  None 7.0 (37/528) Reference Reference