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Table 2 Multinomial Odds Ratios for autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in relation to dust phthalate concentrations, CHARGE study, n = 144a

From: Phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study

Phthalates ASD versus TD DD versus TD
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Boys and Girls (n = 144)     
Di-methyl phthalate 1.09 [0.79; 1.50] 1.14 [0.75; 1.72]
Di-ethyl phthalate 1.13 [0.76; 1.66] 1.18 [0.70; 1.98]
Di-butyl phthalate 1.06 [0.65; 1.73] 1.63 [0.92; 2.87]
Butyl benzyl phthalate 1.17 [0.85; 1.61] 1.40 [0.97; 2.04]
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 1.33 [0.78; 2.25] 2.12 [1.10; 4.09]
Boy only (n = 115)     
Di-methyl phthalate 1.12 [0.79; 1.61] 1.12 [0.67; 1.83]
Di-ethyl phthalate 1.01 [0.66; 1.55] 1.16 [0.65; 2.07]
Di-butyl phthalate 1.27 [0.72; 2.25] 1.38 [0.70; 2.72]
Butyl benzyl phthalate 1.20 [0.84; 1.72] 1.59 [1.00; 2.53]
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 1.23 [0.69; 2.19] 2.27 [1.00; 5.11]
  1. Analyses adjusted for child age at assessment, child gender and race, maternal education and date of dust collection
  2. ASD autism spectrum disorder, DD developmental delay, TD typically developing
  3. aDate of dust collection was missing for one participant