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Table 3 Adjusted associations between dust phthalate concentrations and the MSEL, and VABS scores (CHARGE study, n = 144a)

From: Phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study

  Dimethyl phthalate Diethyl phthalate Dibutyl phthalate Butylbenzyl phthalate Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
  β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
ASD and DD children (n = 77)
Mullen (DQ scores)           
Composite score 0.60 [−3.3; 4.5] 0.97 [−3.8; 5.7] 0.13 [−6.1; 6.4] −2.20 [−6.1; 1.7] 0.30 [−6.2; 6.8]
Expressive language 0.22 [−4.3; 4.8] 1.44 [−4.2; 7.1] −0.11 [−7.5; 7.3] −2.90 [−7.5; 1.7] −1.52 [−9.2; 6.1]
Fine motor 0.76 [−2.5; 4.0] 0.02 [−4.1; 4.1] −2.60 [−8.0; 2.8] −1.70 [−5.1; 1.7] 0.64 [−5.0; 6.2]
Receptive language 1.41 [−3.2; 6.0] 1.09 [−4.6; 6.8] −0.37 [−7.8; 7.1] −2.20 [−6.9; 2.5] 1.21 [−6.5; 8.9]
Visual reception −0.01 [−4.8; 4.8] 1.34 [−4.6; 7.3] 3.61 [−4.2; 11] −2.00 [−7.0; 3.0] 0.89 [−7.3; 9.0]
Vinland (standard scores)           
Composite score 0.29 [−1.9; 2.5] 0.37 [−2.3; 3.0] −0.22 [−3.7; 3.3] −0.40 [−2.6; 1.8] −2.00 [−5.6; 1.6]
Communication −0.43 [−2.8; 1.9] −0.20 [−3.1; 2.7] −1.16 [−4.9; 2.6] −0.53 [−2.9; 1.9] −2.46 [−6.3; 1.4]
Daily living skills 1.75 [−0.5; 3.9] 1.53 [−1.3; 4.3] 0.74 [−3.0; 4.5] 0.41 [−1.9; 2.8] 0.01 [−3.8; 3.9]
Motor skills 0.14 [−3.0; 3.3] 2.08 [−1.9; 6.0] −2.25 [−7.4; 2.9] −1.34 [−4.6; 2.0] −4.40 [−9.7; 0.9]
Socialization 0.18 [−2.4; 2.8] −0.72 [−3.9; 2.5] 2.25 [−1.9; 6.4] −0.63 [−3.3; 2.0] −0.32 [−4.7; 4.0]
TD children (n = 68)           
Mullen (DQ scores)           
Composite score 0.83 [−2.2; 3.9] −1.83 [−5.2; 1.5] −0.38 [−4.0; 3.3] 0.96 [−1.5; 3.4] 1.78 [−2.3; 5.9]
Expressive language −0.28 [−4.2; 3.6] −2.17 [−6.8; 2.5] 0.00 [−5.0; 5.0] 0.13 [−3.3; 3.5] 0.71 [−4.9; 6.4]
Fine motor 1.90 [−1.3; 5.1] 1.06 [−2.5; 4.7] 1.01 [−2.9; 4.9] 1.05 [−1.6; 3.7] 3.48 [−0.8; 7.8]
Receptive language 0.63 [−3.4; 4.6] −2.70 [−7.3; 1.8] −0.64 [−5.6; 4.3] 0.98 [−2.4; 4.3] 1.41 [−4.2; 7.0]
Visual reception 1.04 [−3.4; 5.5] −3.50 [−8.2; 1.2] −1.90 [−7.0; 3.3] 1.67 [−1.8; 5.1] 1.52 [−4.3; 7.4]
Vinland (standard score)           
Composite score 1.19 [−2.4; 4.8] −4.45 [−8.2; −0.7] −3.56 [−7.6; 0.5] 0.43 [−2.4; 3.3] −0.08 [−4.8; 4.6]
Communication 0.39 [−2.7; 3.5] −4.38 [−7.6; −1.2] −3.77 [−7.3; −0.3] −0.46 [−2.9; 2.0] −1.29 [−5.4; 2.8]
Daily living skills 1.43 [−1.8; 4.6] −3.29 [−6.8; 0.3] −3.16 [−7.0; 0.7] 0.14 [−2.5; 2.8] −1.37 [−5.8; 3.0]
Motor skills 1.56 [−1.8; 4.9] −2.06 [−5.6; 1.5] −1.71 [−5.6; 2.2] 0.58 [−2.0; 3.2] 1.36 [−3.0; 5.8]
Socialization 0.15 [−2.8; 3.1] −2.90 [−6.0; 0.3] −1.36 [−4.8; 2.1] 1.28 [−1.1; 3.6] 1.24 [−2.7; 5.2]
  1. Analyses adjusted for child age at assessment, child gender and race, maternal education and date of dust collection
  2. ASD autism spectrum disorder, DD developmental delay, TD typically developing
  3. aDate of dust collection was missing for one participant