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Table 4 Food frequency and dietary pattern in association with oxidative stress and DNA damage [shown as the standardized coefficients (β) and significance ( P )]

From: Effects of a fruit-vegetable dietary pattern on oxidative stress and genetic damage in coke oven workers: a cross-sectional study

  Oxidative stress DNA damage
  SOD GPx MDA MN 8-OH-dG
  β P β P Β P β P β P
Frequency of fruit consumption (daily vs. weekly+monthly)
Crude 0.117 0.035 0.034 0.241 −0.151 0.027 −0.119 0.129 −0.197 0.040
Adjusteda 0.104 0.048 0.031 0.246 −0.143 0.027 −0.138 0.105 −0.178 0.051
Frequency of dark vegetable consumption (daily vs. weekly+monthly)
Crude 0.098 0.064 0.122 0.026 −0.144 0.031 −0.212 0.033 −0.205 0.039
Adjusteda 0.095 0.065 0.109 0.041 −0.151 0.025 −0.223 0.036 −0.195 0.042
Frequency of light vegetable consumption (daily vs. weekly+monthly)
Crude 0.121 0.045 0.084 0.097 −0.132 0.046 −0.175 0.058 −0.188 0.049
Adjusteda 0.112 0.052 0.091 0.092 −0.135 0.045 −0.168 0.066 −0.184 0.051
Pattern 1: Rice-noodle
Crude −0.037 0.721 −0.082 0.427 0.054 0.596 0.115 0.260 0.038 0.713
Adjusteda 0.037 0.396 −0.006 0.885 0.005 0.951 0.090 0.357 −0.025 0.686
Pattern 2: Fruit-vegetable
Crude 0.109 0.041 0.082 0.106 −0.121 0.031 −0.257 0.017 −0.211 0.031
Adjusteda 0.182 0.013 0.099 0.057 −0.130 0.026 −0.293 0.012 −0.220 0.028
Pattern 3: High protein foods
Crude −0.074 0.297 −0.062 0.412 −0.004 0.967 0.196 0.083 0.091 0.218
Adjusteda −0.057 0.233 −0.033 0.327 −0.021 0.789 0.174 0.100 0.079 0.164
Pattern 4: Snack-sugars
Crude −0.013 0.900 0.009 0.932 −0.100 0.330 0.033 0.696 0.034 0.739
Adjusteda −0.031 0.465 −0.036 0.339 −0.072 0.395 0.040 0.583 0.072 0.258
  1. The food frequency comparison was within the dichotomized variables. The dietary pattern comparison was between the highest quartile subjects (Q4) and the lowest quartile subjects (Q1).
  2. aAdjusted for age, BMI, level of education, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, working hours per day, years of service, urinary 1-OHP levels, and exposure group (controls, other COWs, and topside COWs).